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1.1.1 Fundamentals of the Diin:
1.1.2 Basic Characteristics of Islam
1.1.3 The Social Culture of Islam
1.1.4 Iman
1.1.5 Ihsan is the Culture of Islam

1.2.1 Tauhid al ddhaat wa al asma wa al sifaat
1.2.2 Tauhid Al Rububiyyat
1.2.3 Tauhid Al Uluhiyyat
1.2.4’Aqidat al tauhid & Islamic world view
1.2.5 Tauhid: Implications in Daily Life

1.3.1 Basic elements of the process of revelation
1.3.2 Angels
1.3.3 Messengers:
1.3.4 Revealed books
1.3.5 Companions:

1.4.1 Stages of human life
1.4.2 Life in the grave
1.4.3 The last day, yawm al akhirat
1.4.4 After-life:
1.4.5 Nature of the after-life

1.5.1 Description
1.5.2 Will, iraadat, knowledge, ‘ilm, and power, qudrat
1.5.3 Human action
1.5.4 Causality and causal relations
1.5.5 Misunderstanding of qadar


The three fundamentals of ddiin, usul al ddiin, are: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan. These three concepts taken together constitute the creed of Islam, al aqidat al Islamiyyat. There is a gradation. Islam is the beginning. Iman is a higher level. Ihsan is the highest level. Islam is outward manifestation, dhaahir. Iman is in the heart, baatin. Ihsan applies to both Islam and iman. Every muhsin is a mu umin. Every mu umin is a Muslim. Not every mu umin is a muhsin. Not every Muslim is a mu umin. Iman is a higher level of spiritual progress than Islam. Islam is a pre-requisite for iman. You can not have iman without having Islam. It is however possible to be a Muslim who has not yet attained the level of a mu’umin. Iman is knowledge, ‘ilm; testament, qawl; and action, ‘amal. It is acceptance in the heart, tasdiiq bi al qalb; affirmation by the tongue, iqraar bi al lisaan; and work performance by the body, ‘amal bi al jawarih. Ihsan is excellence and is the highest level of din. Ihsan was defined in the sunnat as perfection of action. It represents perfection in both Islam and Iman. It is excellence in worship, work, and in any social action. It is worship of Allah in the full knowledge that He is seeing you even if you cannot see Him. No activity goes by without being observed by Allah. The concept of excellence extends from prescribed acts of ibadat to all human endeavors and activities.

Islam is built on 5 pillars: shahadat, salat, zakat, saum Ramadhan, and hajj. Islam is oral testament, belief, performance of righteous acts, and following the straight path. A person becomes a Muslim by testifying that there is only one creator and that Muhammad is His messenger. Carrying out the four prescribed duties of worship mentioned above is a practical manifestation of the 2 testaments. A person does not cease to be a Muslim because of a sin as long he does not dispute that his action is a sin. A sinner remains a Muslim but of weak faith. Faith is removed from him for the duration of committing the sin. Those who commit major sins will be punished in hell for a time and will be forgiven to go to paradise because Allah forgives everything except polytheism. Islam is comprehensive, unitary, indivisible, action-orientation, easy to practice, universal, and is final message. It is rational and understandable. It establishes freedom of belief and freedom of thought. It is societal, reformist, and revivalistic. It is a ddiin of equilibrium, balance, and moderation between divinity & humanity, spirituality & materialism, revelation & intellect, the afterlife & the earthly, individualism & communalism, ideal & reality, past & future, responsibility & freedom, following & innovation, duties & rights, stability & change, knowledge & belief, right & might, ‘aqiidat & action, ddiin & state, control by faith & control by authority, material innovations & moral ascendancy, military power & morale. 

Imaam al Nawawi listed 23 hadiths that he called madaar al Islam because they define the social culture of Islam. They can be considered under groups: aqidat, personal conduct, and social intercourse. The fundamentals of the ddiin, usul al ddiin, are Islam, iman, and ihsan. A Muslim rejects Innovation in religion, upholds certainty, rejects doubt, believes in qadar, relies on Allah, and repents from sins. Muslim personal conduct is characterized by purity of intention, good conduct, modesty, following the right path, observing rules of halaal and haram, renouncing materialism, consulting his conscience, quality work performance, starting with the most important work, and fulfilling the 5 pillars of Islam. In dealing with others the Muslim leaves alone what does not concern him, loves good for the others, hurts nobody, sincere advice for others, calling to Islam, honoring the neighbor and the guest, suppressing anger, and respecting the sanctity of human life. Misunderstanding of Islam arises due to deliberate distortion by enemies of Muslims or by misbehavior by Muslims ignorant of their religion.

1.1.4 IMAN
Iman has 6 pillars: belief in Allah, belief in angels, as creations from light for the purpose of executing Allah’s commands; belief in the revelations, the major ones being the Qur’an, Injil, Zabuur, and Taurat; belief in messengers, from Adam to Muhammad (PBUH); belief in the last day, al iman  bi yawm al qiyamat; and belief in qadar, and accepting Allah’s judgment whether perceived as favorable or favorable in the full belief that all is from Allah while at the same time basing human action on empirical evidence. Iman has many types and manifestations. There are over 72 types of iman. The highest grade of iman is the testament of la ilaaha illa al llaah and the lowest is removing an annoyance from a public road. Modesty is part of iman. Iman can be weak or strong. The prophet explained the characteristics of the weakest iman. Even the smallest amount of iman protects from hell-fire. Work is part of iman. Iman can increase or decrease according to whether the person is performing good or bad acts. Iman increases with performance of good work. It decreases with performance of bad work. Iman disappears completely for the duration of the period that a major sin like theft or adultery is being committed. It returns as soon as the sin is stopped. There are clear differences between iman and Islam. Iman manifests through practical actions because Islam is a practical religion that has to be lived in society. It is not in any way a metaphysical or esoteric experience. Iman manifests as good deeds, and worship of the creator. It also includes, inter alia, living in harmony with other humans as well as with the social and physical environment. Iman is an inner motivator of externally visible human action and behavior. True believers acquire some recognizable traits and characteristics described by the Qur’an. Iman is associated with excellence in many areas. It is associated with good performance. The believers are tested. Iman has many advantages for the human: honor, brotherhood, firmness, jihad; success, victory, rewards, light. Iman is associated with happiness because a believer knows himself, his position, his relation with the creator, his relation with the other humans and his relation with the physical environment. He can also situate himself in the time dimension; he knows where he came from and where he is going. This sense of firmness removes the normal tensions of uncertainty and anxiety that humans experience and leave the believer a happy and contented person.

Islam requires quality work and excellent performance. Allah accepts and rewards the best of work. He loves quality everything so Muslims must perfect their work. Humans in their earthly life are tested to see who performs the best. The Qur’an and sunnat have emphasized quality, ihsan, and quality performers, muhsinuun.

The essence of Allah is one. As humans we cannot reach or understand the essence of Allah. We can only deal with the names and attributes. Part of the creed is belief in the names and attributes of God. They testify to and help humans understand the power and majesty of the creator. Denial of any one name or attribute nullifies iman. All the 99 names of Allah are mentioned in the Qur’an. Allah has several attributes, sifaat, mentioned in the Qur'an. Like names, the sifaat help the human understand the majesty of Allah. A Muslim must belief in all the sifaat. This includes testifying that they are Allah's attributes and His alone. The human should however not delve into the details of the mechanisms, kaifa, because those are above human intellect and understanding. The sifaat can be anatomical features, actions or functions, or potential for action, or states of being. The names of Allah are to be used for Him and Him alone. Humans cannot attribute any of the names to themselves. This includes prophets and the righteous. The sifaat are for Allah alone and no human or any other creation can have the same attributes. It is a crime to think that Allah’s attributes are similar to human attributes. It is also a crime to deny them.

The concept of rubuubiyyat is the assertion that there is a creator and sustainer for the universe and all its contents. The creator cannot be created and has neither beginning nor end. The concept of auto-creation, existence without a creator, is untenable because it leads to the logical absurdity of an object 'existing' before it existed. Belief in the one-ness of the creator-God, tauhid al rubuubiyyat, is inborn. Any normal human being will innately and instinctively know that there is one creator for the universe. Tauhid al rubuubiyyat is a logical imperative. It is impossible for the harmonious and well-coordinated universe to have more than one creator. No two creators could agree so perfectly without any contradictions. Tauhid al rubuubiyat also explains the harmonious interactions in the eco system, the food chains and the food webs.

Tauhid al uluuhiyyat implies worship of one God alone. Nothing else can be associated with Him in worship. The purpose of the creation of the universe is worship of God that is an expression of gratitude to the creator. All creations involuntarily worship God; it is only humans who sometimes disobey because they were given free will that is misused. Kufr, denial of God, is ungratefulness. Shirk, associating God with anything else in worship, is an unforgivable sin. Shirk is the cause of religious and social anarchy.

Tauhid is oneness of the creator-God that implies oneness of the created universe. The testament of tauhid is 'there is no god but one God, la ilaha illa al llaahu, consists of a negation followed by an affirmation. Tauhid encapsulates the Islamic world-view and is the basis of Islamic culture and civilization. Tauhid is an intellectual challenge since the concept of one God above and beyond human and the whole universe is an intellectual and abstract reality that can be only grasped at the highest levels of intellectual competence. Tauhid provides an integrating framework for the whole universe in whose absence there would be irreconcilable contradictions. Tauhid is the basis for physical and social laws that govern science, technology and society. The perfection, order, and harmony of the universe and the human body are an empirical proof for oneness of the creator. Tauhid, as belief in one creator and sustainer gives purpose and a sense of direction to human civilization. Belief in tauhid guarantees eventual entry into paradise with a short stay in hell as punishment for un-forgiven major sins.

Tauhid has implications for our daily life based on issuing from one creator: brotherhood and equality, physical laws of science and technology, social laws, economic organization, and political organization.

Revelation has three essential components: angels, messengers, and the scriptures. Allah sent messages to humans as revelation, wahy. These revelations were conveyed from the heavens by angels to human messengers who are prophets chosen by Allah.

1.3.2 ANGELS
Belief in the revelation necessitates belief in the existence of the angels who conveyed that message. Angels undertake the following functions: carrying the throne of Allah, being sent on missions, conveying revelations; taking away the souls of the dying, recording human actions and behavior, intervention in some human actions at Allah’s command, executing Allah’s orders on punishing humans, working in jannat, putting disbelievers into jahannam, guarding jahannam, protecting humans, helping believers to victory, seeking forgiveness for humans, and intercession.

Prophets are of two types: those with messages, nabi rusul, and those without messages, nabi. Twenty-five of the messengers are special: Adam, Idris, Nuh, Hud, Salih, Lut, Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, Yaqub, Shuaib, Harun, Musa, Daud, Sulaiman, Ayub, Dhu al Kifli, Yunus, Ilyas, al Yas'a, Zakariyah, Yahya, Isa, and Muhammad. The first messenger was Nuh and the last was Muhammad. The religion of all the messengers is the same in essence and is Islam. A Muslim must believe in all messengers without any distinctions or discrimination. All messengers were human.  It is against the Islamic creed to attribute any divine attribute to any prophet. Some messengers had physical miracles as proof that they were from Allah. Muhammad (PBUH)’s major miracle is the Qur’an which is an everlasting intellectual miracle. The main function of messengers was to convey messages. Muslims believe in the concept of finality of prophethood, khatm al nubuwat. Muhammad is the last of the prophets and messengers. Islam is therefore the final religion and the Qur’an is the final revelation.

Revealed books are an authority and tell the truth. The books are the injil revealed to Isa, the taurat revealed to Musa, the suhf of Ibrahim, the zabuur revealed to Daud, and the Qur’an revealed to Muhammad. The Qur'an contains all the previous books. A Muslim must believe in the past revelations by believing in the Qur’an because they are all embraced within the Qur’an. Rejection of any part of the Qur'an is kufr. It is enough to believe in the Qur'an; it must be out into practice. Muslims are obliged to remember the Qur'an, contemplate its meanings, and convey its message to others. The Qur'an was first revealed on the night of power. It was revealed in bits and pieces over a period of 23 years. The prophet used to dictate the Qur'an to his companions to put each verse in the right surat. The Qur’an, being the last revelation, was scrupulously protected from any distortions. It was written down during the era of the prophet on various writing materials. Thousands of Muslims learn the Qur’an by heart in so many countries that it is impossible for it to be distorted or to disappear. The Qur’an has several names and attributes. The Qur’an is the word of Allah. It is a miracle.  Muslims are obliged to read the Qur’an. The Qur'an clarifies ‘aqidat, is a spiritual guide, a source of Law, a source of information about past and future events, a basis for ummatic unity and helps resolve differences. Belief that the sunnat of the prophet is valid revelation is part of belief in the Qur’an. The sunnat is an extension and interpretation of the Qur’an.

Sahabat or companions are defined as those who met the prophet and believed in him during his lifetime. They were just and truthful. We remember the good acts of the sahabat, talk only good of them, love all of them, and pray for them. Insulting, cursing, or despising any of the sahabat is forbidden. Hatred of the sahabat is kufr and nifaaq. We do not discuss the conflicts that occurred among the sahabat. The righteous, al salihiin, are men and women who lived exemplary lives. We believe that the salihiin or awliya have karaamaat (miracles from other than prophets). The salihiin do not deserve being worshipped in their life or after their death. Worshipping them in order to get nearer to Allah is like worshipping idols. They can be asked to make dua during their life but not after their death. It is forbidden to use the salihiin as intermediaries. It is also considered major shirk to ask them for help, to relieve hardships, or bring benefits.

The life-span, ajal, is fixed. Humans pass through 4 phases: non-existence, life on earth,  life in the grave, the intermediate phase, and life in the hereafter. Islam does not accept the concept of re-incarnation. Each human has only one earthly life which ends on death. Death is a transitional event that occurs when the ruh is separated from the physical body. Death is in the hands of Allah. Humans do not know its appointed time. All humans will die and will have life after death. Life in the hereafter, hayat al akhirat, is a higher and better existence than the earthly life, hayat al duniyat. Life after death has two consecutive stages: life in the grave and in life after resurrection either in jahannam or in jannat. On resurrection the ruh will rejoin its physical body. Life in the hereafter whether in paradise or in hell is everlasting.

1.4.2 LIFE IN THE GRAVE, qabr
Burial in the grave is a respectful send-off unlike most animals that just abandon their dead. It is followed by questioning during which the ruh is returned temporarily to the body. The believers will answer correctly whereas the evil ones will not know the answers. Everyone will be told their fate, jannat or jahannam, while they are still in the qabr. There will be rewards and punishment in the qabr. Transitional life, hayat al barzakh, is between earthly life and life in the hereafter. Some authentic hadiths seem to indicate existence of some physiological functions in the deceased in the graves such as shouting, hearing. Ghosts do not exist. There is no direct between the dead in the qabr and living humans on earth. The dead cannot influence events on earth. The living cannot influence events in the qabr apart from dua. Dreams of the living about the dead are not a true form of communication between the living and the dead. Only dreams of prophets are true. Interpretation of dreams of ordinary humans is not a valid method of knowing anything about the dead.

1.4.3 THE LAST DAY, yawm al akhirat
Belief in the last day is a pillar of iman. Denial of the last day is unbelief, kufr. The knowledge of tlast day is with Allah alone. The pre-events of the last day will be social, physical, and special changes. The social changes will be: mothers enslaved by their children, living in sky scrapers, plenty of wealth, much fitnat, disappearance of trust, and disappearance of iman,. The physical events will be: rising of the sun from the west. The special events will be emergence of the false messiah; descent of Isa, and emergence of the daabat al ardh. This will be followed by the following events of the last day. The horn will be blown to herald resurrection. People will be gathered, their work record will be presented, accounts of their deeds will be made, the balance will be set up, and justice will be established. Intercession on the last day will be by Allah’s permission as mentioned in the Qur’an.

Jannat and jahannam were created by Allah before creation of humans. They exist today and are eternal. The jannat has many bounties and comforts that will be enjoyed in a physical form. People in jannat will enjoy these physical comforts without the biological and psychological stresses of life on earth. Jahannam is the abode of the unbelievers and wrong-doers. It is a place of punishment. The Qur’an has described life in hell as bad and frightening. There are many punishments one of which is physical burning. The physiological processes on earth will also occur in hell but will be a means of punishment and not satisfying physiological needs. The drink will not quench thirst. The food will not relieve hunger.

Life after resurrection from the graves will be physical and not metaphysical or spiritual. We do not know whether it will be exactly like that on earth or there will be some differences. The Qur’an makes it clear that it will be physical life with physical bodies with physiological functions of that life that are similar to those on earth. The resurrected humans will experience all events of the hereafter as physical beings. There will be no more death after the last day. Those who enter paradise will stay there permanently. Hell will be permanent for certain categories of offenders. Those with minor offences will spend a time of punishment in hell and then be forgiven and enter paradise.

Everything is fixed and is under Allah's pre-determination. The two terms qadha and qadar mean different things. Qadar is pre-determination or pre-fixing of events before their occurrence. Qadha is a term used to refers to the empirical or practical occurrence of what was pre-determined by qadar. In the stage of qadar Allah knows what will happen but the human does not. The human has to struggle as best as he can to achieve a desired objective. In the stage of qadha the event has occurred, the human has to accept what happened because now he can do nothing to reverse the qadar of Allah. Allah’s knowledge and will are unrestricted. Humans have to surrender to Allah’s will. They cannot change established qadar except by dua. Belief in qadar is associated with contentment of the heart, avoidance of excessive joy and sadness, bravery and initiative, and lack of fear. There is no escape from qadar since it operates everywhere. Everything was pre-determined before the creation of the earth and the heavens and is recorded in Allah’s great record. All phenomena and events in the universe follow the program in the record. Ordinary humans have no way of knowing what is in the record. Qadar It is part of belief in the unseen because human intellect can not on its own logically work out all aspects of qadar.

1.5.2 WILL, iraadat, KNOWLEDGE, ‘ilm, and POWER, qudrat
Allah’s knowledge, will, and power are unlimited. Human will, knowledge, and power are limited. The limited human will can be misguided by shaitan. A human in the course of normal life gets good and bad experiences. A believing Muslim knows that all is part of qadar and says ‘praise be to Allah’, alhamdu li llaah, for both good and bad experiences. The terms good and bad in human experience and knowledge are relative. What may appear to be good may turn out to be bad. What may appear to be bad may turn out to be good.

All human actions were created by Allah. He knows the actions of humans in advance. Allah tries humans by letting them be free in the choice of their actions but He knows in advance what they will choose. Whatever choices the human makes Allah is forgiving and is kind. Free will entails responsibility and humans are responsible for their actions and are accountable for their choices. Humans should not give up struggling relying on qadar and arguing that everything is pre-determined. They have to make all the efforts that is humanly possible to achieve a good result. The laws of causality are fixed such that an action is inevitably followed by the predictable result unless there is special divine intervention. However despite all human effort the results turn out different from the expectation, the human must submit and accept the will of Allah. A human can be guided or misguided. Guidance in the long run is from Allah. Humans within their limited will can exert effort to be guided. All of the human’s life on earth is a great test of how well the free will is used.

In most human situations phenomena follow the fixed causal laws ie action is followed by an effect. Each event has a cause, sabab. All causes are from Allah. The causal laws are called ‘sunan Allah fi al kawn’ in Qur’anic terminology. These laws are fixed and are stable. Allah is not bound to obey these laws because they are His laws. His will is above them and can alter them. Allah created the causes and the effects. Thus causes are part of qadar. Normally the cause is followed by the expected result. There are however situations such as prophetic miracles in which divine intervention breaks those physical laws known to humans. In such situations one qadar is reversing another qadar.

Correct understanding of qadar requires distinguishing tawakkul that is good from tawaakul that is bad. Tawakkul in relying on Allah after taking all the necessary measures to achieve an objective following the laws of causality. Tawaakul is giving up all effort and just wait for things to happen. Human illness is part of qadar. Medical treatment is not denial of or attempting to reverse qadar. Both the disease and its treatment are part of Allah’s all-embracing qadar. The human in his limited knowledge can not distinguish between curable and incurable disease. He therefore plays safe by treating all diseases to the best of their ability being fully aware that this is an attempt and leave the rest to Allah. Allah alone determines the life and death. No human can give life or take it away. The human can be involved as an agent but not as a cause. These are matters of qadar that the human intellect cannot understand fully. Trying to search into such matters leads to perdition. It is therefore advised not to go deep in matters of qadar. 


2.1.1 Concept Of ‘ubudiyyat
2.1.2 Love and Fear
2.1.3 Obedience, ta’at
2.1.4 Remembrance, dhikr
2.1.5 Worship, ‘ibadat

2.2 PURIFICATION OF THE SELF, tazkiyat al nafs
2.2.1 Personality, al nafs
2.2.2 Tazkiyat: concept
2.2.3 Tazkiyat: methodology
2.2.4 Models of purity: the prophet and khulafa
2.2.5 Models of purity: believers

2.3 SINNING, ithm
2.3.1 The Enormities, Al kabair
2.3.2 Classification of common sins
2.3.3 Punishment, 'iqaab
2.3.4 Repentance, taubat
2.3.5 Forgiveness, ghufran

2.4.1 Kufr
2.4.2 Shirk
2.4.3 Actions and beliefs that nullify tauhid

2.5.1 Religions, belief systems, and philosophies
2.5.2 Belief systems
2.5.3 Philosophies
2.5.4 Secularism
2.5.5 Modernism and post modernism

UNIT 2.1: ‘Ubuudiyyat
All humans are slaves of Allah. A true slave of Allah is a slave only Allah and cannot accept any other master either is association with Allah or instead of Allah. Slaves to Allah alone are free persons in complete control of the self and are not under the control of other humans, the shaitan, or human passion. The Qur’an has described prophets, the jinn, and angels as slaves of Allah. Humans can only find true liberation is submitting as slaves to Allah. Whenever they seek liberation in any other way they only change the form of slavery; the outside and form change but the essence remains. Being a slave of Allah requires that the slave obey the master in what is enjoined and what is prohibited. It also requires that the slave worship the master. ‘Ibadat is for the master alone and nobody else can be associated with the master in worship.

2.1.2. FEAR
The Qur’an uses 5 terms to describe ‘fear’: taqwa, khashiyat, khawf, rahbat, and tadahru’u. Fear in Qur’anic terminology is different from the linguistic meaning. Believers’ fear of Allah is combined with love for Him and hope for His rewards and mercy. Believers’ good behavior is not only out of fear of punishment but also to express gratitude to Allah for His bounties. Taqwa is the only true and invariable criterion of superiority among humans. Taqwa or its absence has a major impact on human action and behavior. At an individual level the practical manifestations of taqwa are: doing good, undertaking ‘ibadat, and avoiding bad actions. At a societal level the practical manifestations of taqwa are enjoining good and forbidding the bad. Among the consequences of taqwa are: love of Allah, success, victory, and good behavior. Taqwa is needed in all fields of endeavor. Taqwa is enjoined even in dealing with polytheists. The Qur’an condemns fear of humans instead of Allah. Staying on the right path, istiqaamat, is a result of taqwa. Fear should be balanced by hope.

2.1.3 OBEDIENCE, ta’at
The Qur’an enjoins obedience of Allah and the Prophet but forbids obedience of shaitan. Ta’at is a practical expression of taqwa. The essence of obedience is fulfilling the injunctions of Allah. Ta’at leads to success and guidance. It is also associated with a lot of rewards. Disobedience, ma’asiyat, is the opposite of ta’at. It is either omission, neglect of prescribed duties, or commission, committing forbidden acts. Prophets and angels do not disobey Allah. Believers do not disobey Allah.

2.1.4 REMEMBRANCE, dhikr
Dhikr is essentially worship of the creator and carries the same meaning as ‘ibadat. It has however been misinterpreted as meaning specific formulas or supplications repeated a given number of times a day or on given occasions. Dhikr is all the time and in all of forms and is essentially full awareness that Allah is the creator who must be worshipped and remembered all the time. Dhikr is also constant awareness and remembrance of Allah’s bounties for humans. Dhikr is to be carried out as much as possible. Among the positive benefits of dhikr: rewards, protection from evil actions, patience, calmness, and success. Abandoning dhikr is condemned.

‘Ibadat is the purpose of creation and is a practical expression of taqwa. All human activities are ‘ibadat if undertaken with the correct intention. All acts of ‘ibadat are for Allah alone. There is no intermediary or intercessor between the human and Allah in ‘ibadat. ‘Ibadat can be structured or non-structured. Structured ‘ibadat can be obligatory or non-obligatory. Acts of ‘ibadat may be mental, physical, or verbal. Avoiding committing evil acts is ‘ibadat. ‘Ibadat must be constant in all places, at all times, and in all circumstances. Allah rewards contemplating or performing acts of ‘ibadat, obligatory and non-obligatory. There is punishment for neglecting obligatory acts but not the non-obligatory ones. There is no punishment for contemplation of a bad act that is eventually not carried out. All prescribed acts of ‘ibadat have a social purpose. Salat and hajj are social gatherings. Zakat is a system of mutual social support that provides for everybody’s welfare. Fasting is a voluntary experience of hunger that makes the rich sensitive to the plight of the poor who cannot get enough food.

UNIT 2.2: PURIFICATION OF THE SELF, tazkiyat al nafs
2.2.1 PERSONALITY, al nafs
Personality is the totality of behavior of an individual. People’s personalities differ. An individual has both positive and negative personality traits. The exceptionally good and strong personalities are rare. The essence of a person and personality is the nafs and not the physical body. A human being is born in a natural state of purity, fitrat al Islam. The potential to do good or bad exists at the beginning. It is the early environment that determines how those potentials are enhanced. The states of the nafs in increasing grades of perfection are: nafs ammarah, nafs lawamah, and nafs kamilat that manifests in 5 ways: nafs mulhamah; nafs qanu’ah, nafs mutma’inna, nafs radhiyah, and nafs mardhiyat. Besides the nafs, personality is determined by biological inheritance, the physical environment, the culture, socialization, group and unique individual experiences. Basic personality is established early in life and only minor modifications can be made to it in later life. This underlies the importance of education and training in childhood when personality is still malleable. Personality improves through spiritual and intellectual development. Personality can be polluted by diseases of the heart such as covetousness, passion, pride, evil, hiwa al nafs, and waswasat. These pollutants may have inner promptings within the human that are encouraged by external social influences.

Prophets were sent to ensure tazkiyat for humans. Tazkiyat is fulfillment and return to the first covenant between humans and Allah. Tazkiyat, as a basis for development and improvement of personality, is a long, pro-active, and uphill task whose road map is the Qur’an. Correct and firm ‘aqidat, ‘ibadat, avoiding the forbidden, generally being conscious of the creator, and constant meditation about creation are paths to tazkiyat that lead to development and improvement of personality, good character, good behavior, assertiveness, and self-confidence. Living in a righteous community is necessary to motivate and encourage tazkiyat. Islam is a practical religion. Achievement of purity is through action.

Tazkiyat is based on ikhlaas, sidq, istislam, and  tadharu'u. Tazkiyat is answering the call of Allah by sticking to the straight path, renouncing materialism, constant vigilance against shaitan. Tazkiyat can be achieved by dhikr, isti'adhat, istighfar, tasbiih, tahmiid, tahliil, dua, and physical ‘ibadat: salat, saum, and  infaq.

Prophets were sent as human models of tazkiyat whose practical life experiences showed that a human can overcome inner weaknesses and evil tendencies to succeed in attaining a high level of purity. The Prophet Muhammad lived an exemplary life so that the companions could see and emulate the best behavior. He had the best character and his character was the Qur’an. He lived a simple life. Abubakr was the best person after the Prophet. He was siddiq and his faith was so strong that it would outweigh the faith of the rest of the ummat. Omar comes after Abubakr in virtue. Omar was so strong that the shaitan feared to follow his path. He lived a simple and hard life away from luxuries. Othman was a generous and pious who was so modest that the angels were shy of him.

Believers of all generations and all places have manifested noble traits of purity of personality than can be emulated. The Qur’an has described traits of believers because Allah wanted to put before all humanity a model that could be emulated. The believers have the following spiritual traits: believing Allah's signs, responding to the call of Allah, obedience of Allah, repentance, reform, surrender to Allah, commitment, reliance on Allah, and fear in the hearts. The believers have the following social traits: keeping away from lahw, keeping the private parts from sinning, keeping promises and trusts, humility, enjoining good, forbidding evil, attesting the truth, patience, kindness, forgiving when angry; undertaking jihad, and mutual consultation. They avoid the following evil acts: homicide, fornication, false witness, friendship for those who fight Allah and the Prophet, and committing major sins. The ‘ibadat traits of believers are: dua to Allah only, establishment, maintaining, and regularity of salat, khushu'u in salat; salat at night, giving zakat and sadaqat to the poor while being moderate in giving.

UNIT 2.3: SINNING, al ithm
2.3.1 THE ENORMITIES, al kabair
The terms for sin are ithm, dhanb, sayi'at, fujuur, and fahishat. The terms for good are tayyib, khair, or birr. The terms for evil are batil, khabiith, and sharr. Good and evil can be absolute or relative. Human fitra can tell the difference between god and evil in most situations but there are gray areas that require guidance by revelation. Sinning can arise from inner tendency to evil, external promptings by shaitan, or an interaction between the two. Sins can be minor, saghair, or major enormities, kabair. The Prophet mentioned 7 major sins: shirk; sihr; qatl; riba; eating the orphan’s property, fleeing from the battle-field, and falsely accusing chaste women, qadhf al muhswanaat.  Imam Shams al Ddiin al Dhahabi (d. 748 AH) listed 70 major sins. Ibn Hajar al Haytami (d. 807H) published a longer list of 440 enormities.

Common sins can be classified in groups based on the potential of preventing them: sins of ‘aqidat, sins of the heart, sins of the tongue, and the sin of oppression, dhulm. There are 3 basic sins of aqidat: kufr, shirk, and nifaaq. Sins of the heart are kibr, takabbur, ‘ujb, hiqd, hasad, ghurur, shahwat, suu’u al dhann, and sukhriyyah.  Sins of the tongue are ghaibat, namimat, kadhb, alqaab, laghw, lamz, and hamz. Dhulm is the sin of transgression and oppression. It is violating an individual in his person, his wealth, his rights, or his honor. Dhulm could be physical, psychological or rights violation. It could be directed at an individual, a group of individuals or the whole community. The term dhulm could also apply to situations in which there is transgression against the environment and irreversible destruction of the eco-system. There are cases in which dhulm is directed at the self, dhulm al nafs.

2.3.3 PUNISHMENT, 'iqaab
Sinners can be punished on earth or in the hereafter. Punishment on earth may be individual or communal. It may be direct or through the agency of other humans. Execution of legal punishments expiates further punishment in the hereafter. The Qur'an has told us stories of individuals and communities who were punished for their sins on earth such as Pharaoh, people of Yunus, People of Hud, people of Nuh, people of Salih, people of Lut, Banu Israil, and people of the elephant. Allah's communal punishments continue even today but people are not conscious of them. Civil wars, natural disasters, epidemic diseases are punishments for sins of some individuals in the community. Communal punishments do not distinguish between the guilty and the innocent. The innocent are punished for their failure to stand up to evil and stop it or migrating to another country. Sinners will be punished in the hereafter. The Qur’an has described the punishment of the hereafter as great, painful, severe, and demeaning.

2.3.4 REPENTANCE, taubat
Forgiveness follows taubat from sins. Allah is happy with the taubat of His servants. Allah will accept taubat from a human until the moment of death. Taubat can be accepted from the murtadd, and the murderer. Regret, nadam is a form of taubat. Taubat is a form of self-cleansing from evils that is followed by reform. Allah enjoins humans to repent. The Prophet used to make taubat many times a day. Acceptance of taubat will continue until the last day. Taubat nasuhat is one that is not followed by any additional sin. We can tell that taubat was accepted if the person desists and does not return to the sin. Taubat must be early. The person must give up the sin after taubat. Taubat must be accompanied by regret and remorse.

2.3.5 FORGIVENESS, ghufran
It is Allah's mercy that there is forgiveness of sins. Allah can forgive instead of punishing. Allah's forgiveness is very wide in scope. All sins except shirk can be forgiven. Allah can also forgive transgression, dhulm. The time of forgiveness is the hereafter. Allah promised humans His forgiveness. However it is in His will to forgive or not forgive. Allah forgave prophets such as Adam, Ibrahim, Daud, Sulaiman, Muhammad, Musa, and Nuh. He also forgave many other normal humans. Humans are encouraged to hasten in seeking forgiveness. Forgiveness is sought from Allah only. It is He alone who can forgive. The following are reasons for getting forgiveness from Allah: iman, taqwah, taubah, jihad, khashiat, ta'at, afwu, & ‘amal salih. There three main reasons for withholding forgiveness are shirk, kufr, & nifaq.

Kufr is denial of Allah. kufr mutlaq is rejection of all the truth and kufr muqayyad is rejection of some of the truth. kufr ‘amali is by action and kufr i’itiqaadi is by belief. Kufr akbar manifests as kufr al tasdiiq; kufr al takdhiib, kufr iba’ wa-istikbar ma’a  al-tasdiiq; kufr al-shakk wa-al-dhann;kufr al-i’radh; and kufr al-nifaaq. Kufr asghar manifests as kufr al-nimah; kufr ‘amali. The kaafiruun, have the following characteristics: following falsehood, ittibau al batil, following whims and desires, committing crimes, wastefulness, mischief, miserliness, luxury, arrogance, ignorance, love for the world, treachery, transgression, enmity to others, ‘inaad, ghuruur, fujuur, fisq, ghafla, telling lies and hating the truth. The work of the kafiruun even if good is not considered. Hypocrisy, nifaq is deception in which faith is shown outwardly whereas there is disbelief and rejection of the truth inside. Riddat can be by word, riddat qawliyyat; by action, riddat fi’iliyyat; by belief, riddat i’itiqaadiyyat; and by doubt, al shakk.

Polytheism takes the form of polytheism, dualism, henotheism, pantheism, and monism. Human history is a struggle between tauhid and shirk. Shirk can be classified major shirk, al shirk al akbar, and minor shirk, al shirk al asghar. It can also be classified as shirk i’itiqaadi and shirk ‘amali. Shirk akbar is shirk al ‘ibadat; shirk al-du’a; shirk al-niyyah wa-al-qasd wa al-iradah; shirk al ‘amal li ghair al llaah; shirk al-ta’ah; shirk al-mahabbah; shirk al wasaatat; shirk al tawaakul; shirk al raja; shirk fi sifaat al llaah; shirk al huluul; shirk al tasarrif; shirk al khawf; shirk al haakimiyyat; al khudhu’u li ghair al llaah; an dhull li ghairn al llaah;shirk tahliil al haraam; shirk tahriim al halaal; al dhabah li ghair al llaah; shirk al tanjiim. Minor shirk manifests as riyaa and making an oath for anything other hand, al hilf li ghair al llaah.

Rejection of any of the 5 pillars of Islam or the 6 pillars of iman nullifies tauhid. Tauhid is also nullified by doing any of the following for other than Allah: ‘ibadat, dhabah, nadhar, hilf, tawakkul, ruku’u, or sujuud. Tauhid is also nullified by rejecting anything from the Qur’an, judging or settling disputes by other than what Allah revealed, acknowledging legislative authority from other than Allah, tahriim ma ahalla al llaah, Tahliil ma harama al llaah, separation of religion from the state, apostasy, riddat, alliances with the kaafiruun, believing the kaahin & munajjim, believing ‘arraaf or saahir when they claim to know the unseen, ghaib. Sins do not nullify aqidat unless the sinner has decided on his own to make haram halal. Any ma’asiyat decreases iman or may nullify it completely but it can return in taubat.

Religion is defined academically by its components: a prophet, theology, scriptures, doctrines, rites & rituals, and holidays. Denominations within a religion are due to differences in fundamental doctrines whereas sects are due to differences in minor doctrines. The main organized religions in the world today are: Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Nasraniyyat, Confucianism, Judaism, Shintoism, and Taoism.

The main belief systems in the world are: atheism, monotheism, dualism, polytheism, henotheism, pantheism, and animism. Budhism is basically atheistic. Islam and Judaism are monotheistic. Christianity has qualified monotheism in its concept of trinity. Zoroastrianism is dualistic. Hinduism has elements of atheism, monotheism, polytheism, henotheism and pantheism. Monism is found among the Sikhs.

The main philosophies are Confucianism and Daoism. Confucianism emphasizes formalism, good conduct and moral judgment. Doism opposes formalism and advocates harmony with nature being intertwined with the concepts of ying and yang that emphasize balance and harmony. Animism is found in many pre-historic tribes.

Ancient Greeks and Romans were polytheists worshipping several gods. As the Christian Church gained more influence and power in Europe many Greco-roman religious ideas and cultural practices were suppressed sometimes violently. This extended to suppression of scientific knowledge. When the Church became too oppressive, Europeans rebelled against it and sought to re-establish their Greco-roman heritage. The European renaissance was in essence a return to ancient European culture and religion. The secular ideology that was unleashed by the renaissance is not separation of religion from public life but replacement of Christianity by the informal religion and culture of ancient Greece and Rome. Secularism is also a form of religion. The European ages of exploration and expansion starting in the 16th century led to spread of the germs of secularism in other parts of the world.

Modernist and post modernist philosophies are an extension of European secularism in the 20th and 21st centuries.

CREATION OF THE HUMAN, khalq al insan

3.1 CREATION OF THE HUMAN, khalq al insan
3.1.1 Basic Concepts
3.1.2 Uniqueness of Human Creation, khusuusiyyat khalq al insan
3.1.3 Creation and not Evolution, khalq wa laisa tatwiir
3.1.4 Special Cases of Creation
3.1.5 Parity in Creation, al zawjiyyat fi al khalq

3.2 NATURE OF THE HUMAN, tabi'at al insaan
3.2.1 The Natural State, fitrat
3.2.2 The Essence: nafs, qalb, ruh
3.2.3 Duality, al ijdiwaajiyyat
3.2.4 Relation with the Unseen, ‘alaqat al insan bi ‘aalam al ghaib
3.2.5 Attributes of the Human, sifaat al insan

3.3 SUPERIORITY OF HUMANS, afdhaliyyat al insaan
3.3.1 Criterion of Superiority, mi’iyaar al afdhaliyyat
3.3.2 Intellect and Knowledge, ‘aql & ‘ilm
3.3.3 Free Will, al-iraadat
3.3.4 The Trust, al amanat
3.3.5 Moral Guidance, hidayat

3.4 MISSION OF HUMANS ON EARTH, risalat al insan fi al ardh
3.4.1 Definition of the Mission, mafhuum risaalat al insaan
3.4.2 Scope of the Mission, huduud al risaalat
3.4.3 Duration of the Mission,
3.4.4 Success, falah
3.4.5 Failure, khaibat

3.5 DIVERSITY OF HUMANS, tafaawut al bashar
3.5.1 Common Biological and Social Origin, asl al insane waahid
3.5.2 Similarities and Differences: Biological and Social, al tashaabuh wa tabaayun
3.5.3 Gender Differences, dhukuurat & inaathat
3.5.4 Race or Ethnicity, qabiilat / ‘ashiirat
3.5.5 Individuality of Every Person, al fardiyyat

UNIT 3.1: CREATION OF THE HUMAN, khalq al insan
Allah the creator is different from the created. He is infinite and all-knowing. Humans being created cannot participate in any way in the creation process. Humans were created after animals and plants. They are of dual nature being made from ruh and matter. Adam was from the elements of the earth. Allah then inserted the root into him making him a human. When the ruh was put in Adam, Allah ordered all angels to bow to him. All the angels followed Allah’s order except the proud Iblis. Adam was given knowledge superior to that of angels by being taught the names of all things. Adam then settled in jannat with his wife but was misled into disobedience by shaitan. He repented and was forgiven by Allah. Adam then descended to earth where he became a prophet and the father of all humans. Descendants of Adam were one community united on the creed of tauhid. When they deviated Nuh was sent to call them back to tauhid. Humans were created de novo as humans. All humans have a common biological origin and are different from other creations of Allah.

Human creation is optimal in structure and function. It is beautiful, orderly, harmonious, organized, and precise. It manifests signs of Allah. It is superior to and is honored above all other creations. It is unique and the most sophisticated. Humans have 3 unique features: the ruh, carrying amanat, khilafat, and taskhiir. The human is dual being both body and soul; matter and spirit. Animals have only the body whereas angels have only the soul. Humans agreed to carry amanat while all other creations were afraid to do so. Humans were placed on earth as viscegerants. All other creations were made subservient to humans.

3.1.3 CREATION AND NOT EVOLUTION, khalq wa laisa tatwiir
The Qur’an teaches that Adam was created de novo as a human. Human history therefore starts from Adam the fully formed human being. All human beings have the same biological origin, asl al insan wahid. Human creation was a deliberate and not a random or accidental event. It was revolutionary and not evolutionary. Islam believes in a creator God. Evolution by natural selection is denial of the existence of a creator God. Our arguments against the theory of evolution are based on the premise that it is a theory that is unproven. The theory has been continually updated to fit new data while its atheistic and non-scientific core was left intact. Creation is a simpler explanation of the data on similarities and differences among living things than evolution by natural selection. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection gave a pseudo scientific support for atheism and animalism. Atheism is denies the existence of a creator God worthy of worship. Animalism asserts that humans are like animals and have no special or superior moral standing. Persistence of the theory of evolution is supported by three practical motivations: racism, colonialism, and class exploitation.

According to the Qur’an two humans were created in a different way: Adam and Isa. Adam (PBUH) was created without a father or a mother. Isa (PBUH) was created only from a mother and no father. Adam was more of a miracle because he had no parent at all. These differences are not unique when we look at the whole scheme of Allah’s creation. There are many examples of reproduction in the animal and plant kingdoms in which only one parent is involved.

Parity found in human creation is part of the general phenomenon of parity found in other creations of Allah. The Qur'an has mentioned parity in all creation. There is parity in humans. There is parity in animals, parity in plants, and parity in physical phenomena like day and night.

UNIT 3.2: NATURE OF THE HUMAN, tabi'at al insaan
3.2.1 THE NATURAL STATE, fitrat
Allah the creator created humans in the state of fitra. This is the best state both biologically, morally, socially, and psychologically. Fitrat can be degraded or distorted by human behavior biologically, morally, and in terms of ‘aqidat. Both nature and nurture play a role in human action and behavior. The relative role of each varies according to what aspects of human biology and behavior are being considered. The basic human fitrat enables humans to know the bad from the good in most cases without the need for revelation, wahy. Revelation and human experience only reinforce what is known innately. There are however a few aspects that humans cannot know without the guidance of revelation. Humans have innate weaknesses in their fitrat.

The essence of the human is the nafs. The words qalb and ruh are also used to mean nafs. The exact nature of the nafs, ruh, or qalb is in Allah’s knowledge. The nafs has three levels: prone to evil, nafs ammara; self-reproaching, nafs lawamat; and perfect, nafs kaamilat. The nafs kaamilat is satisfied, nafs mutmainnat; pleased, nafs raadhiyat; and pleasing, nafs mardhiyat. There are many signs of Allah in the nafs. The nafs has positive and negative attributes. It can change to the good or the bad. The qalb has been described as associated with iman, emotions, sensation, intellect, responsibility, and guidance. Diseases of the qalb include lahw, ghaflah, ghill, ghaidh, kibr, and nifaq. The qalb can be influenced or changed. The ruh is eternal. It was created before the body. It is the essential difference between a human and an animal. The ruh does not return to earth after death. Those who claim to make contact with souls of the dead are liars. Islam does not accept the concept of transmutation of souls (movement of the ruh from one person to another). It also does not accept reincarnation.

The non-material part of the human is the nafs or the ruh. It is the essence and the most important. It is the source of identity for each individual human. It is permanent existing before and after the end of the physical part of the human. The physical form of the human body is temporary. The uniqueness of the human lies in the duality of matter and ruh. Human behavior is a reflection of the dual nature but the ruh and nafs have overriding control over the body. The physical part of the human through the hormonal and neural drives is also responsible for some types of behavior.

3.2.4 RELATION WITH THE UNSEEN, ‘alaqat al insan bi ‘aalam al ghaib
Muslims believe in the unseen. They have only a one-way contact with the unseen through the verses of the Qur’an. Allah the almighty is watching and knows what the entire human is doing and nothing can be hidden from Him. Angels and jinn are part of the unseen. They intervene in human actions but most ordinary humans cannot initiate any contacts with them. The human lives and functions in the empirical world of the seen. Scientific empirical prediction of the future or reconstructions of the past are not intrusions into the unseen because they are interpretations of empirical data that may not always be perfect.

3.2.5 ATTRIBUTES of the HUMAN, sifaat al insan
It is a unique duality of the human that he has both negative and positive attributes. The human is superior because of ability to do good despite the potential for evil. The positive attributes of humans as: gratitude, desire of both the earth and the heaven, and belief. On the negative side the human is described as proud, unjust, hasty, miserly, ignorant, foolhardy, neglectful, evil-doer, spreader of evil, denier of the truth, kafir & kafuur, polytheist, hypocrite, niggardly, argumentative, perfidious, adversarial, despairing, impatient, fretful, transgressor, self-sufficient, ungrateful, denier of favors, and lover of passions. The most important attribute of humans is intelligence that is highly developed, sophisticated, specialized, and capable of abstract thought and problem solving. Human aggression is a constant characteristic of humans as individuals and societies. It always leads to destruction. Aggression can be against the self, dhulm al nafs, other humans, dhulm al ghair. Aggression is the final pathway for many of human weaknesses and failures. The first recorded act of human aggression was homicide committed by one of Adam’s sons because of jealousy. Since then human history has been characterized by aggression of various types and kinds. Human aggression is so much that even when seeking recreation, they have a tendency towards sports like boxing, wrestling and others that allow expression of the inner tension or aggression.

UNIT 3.3: SUPERIORITY OF HUMANS, afdhaliyyat al insaan
3.3.1 CRITERION OF SUPERIORITY, mi’iyaar al afdhaliyyat
Humans aware of their superiority and distinction from other creations will have the self-confidence and self-esteem and will power needed to adopt and maintain healthy life-styles. Present medical technology and knowledge are sufficient to eradicate most human physical diseases if humans were willing to change to healthy lifestyles. The human is superior to every other living and non-living thing that Allah created. Allah honored the human above all other creation. Human superiority is due special attributes and capacities that Allah endowed the human with. Human superiority is not based on body size, physical strength, or any special anatomical or physiological function. Human superiority is generic and not specific for any individual human. Humans as a group are superior to other creations but individual humans may not be. Human superiority is not a right. It is a potential that can be developed or can be neglected. Not every single human individual can claim this superiority. Humans can rise to the summits of excellence. Humans can also fall to be the lowest of the low and could be worse off than animals. Taqwa is the basic criterion of superiority. It is a final common pathway for the 4 criteria of human superiority: intellect, ‘aql; a free will, iraadat; responsibility, amaanat; and moral guidance, hidaayat.

3.3.2 INTELLECT AND KNOWLEDGE, ‘aql and ‘ilm
Intellect is the most important criterion of human superiority and the other criteria depend on it either directly or indirectly. In the absence of the intellect, the rest of the criteria of superiority lose their significance. The superior human intellect is due to a better-developed and sophisticated cerebral cortex. The intellect enables humans to analyze, understand, and learn knowledge that is the basis for human action. Unlike other creations of Allah humans can enlarge their corpus of knowledge through research. Human control of the physical universe is made possible by their intellect. Closely related to intellect is the power of speech and communication that enables humans to carry out social intercourse and thus succeed in living in families and communities. The human can use the intellect well by thinking and deliberating on Allah’s creation and doing good. The intellect can also be misused to cause harm to self, the society, and the eco-system.

3.3.3 FREE WILL, al-iraadat
The human has a will that is defined and is limited. It is subservient to Allah’s authority. The human is personally accountable for actions done within this limited free will. Having a free will is an indicator of human maturity since it was not given to other creations. Humans are tested on how well they use their free will. They may pass the test or fail the test. Allah in His mercy always is ready to forgive if they turn to him in repentance, taubat, and are determined to pass the test when given a new chance.  Human will/can be used positively in working and preparing for the life hereafter and doing good. Human will/can also be used negatively for pursuit of pleasures of the earth, doing evil, and transgression.

3.3.4 THE TRUST, al amanat
Amanat is obedience and fulfilling duties. It is comprehensive covering ‘ibadat, iman, the self, the family, the society, and the whole eco-system. It includes the present and the future times. Amanat is the basis for human responsibility and accountability. Fulfilling the amanat is by doing the right. Failing the amanat is failing to do the right. It is part of Allah’s grace that failure does not affect all humans all the time and in all places. At any one time there is someone somewhere carrying the amanat responsibly.

3.3.5 MORAL GUIDANCE, hidayat
Allah honored and dignified humans by giving them a free choice to choose between right and wrong, good and evil. Allah's will is involved in human guidance. He guides only those who have already made the initial choice and taken steps towards hidayat. Humans, in the pure state of fitra, have an innate concept of what is good and what is bad. They however can make mistakes in some complicated matters. Allah in His mercy revealed the comprehensive code of the shari’at to help humans identify the good and do it as well as identify the bad and avoid it. Humans can live in societies regulated by a moral code. Humans can choose to live morally in their individual lives. The righteous, saalihiin, are humans who exemplify very high levels of morality by seeking to do good even in the most difficult conditions. The highest level of this morality is to seek the ultimate pleasure of Allah.

3.4.1 DEFINITION OF THE MISSION, mafhuum risaalat al insaan
‘Ibadat is the purpose of creation. It in turn defines the mission of humans on earth. The mission of the human is therefore to undertake ‘ibadat. A human who establishes ‘ibadat is successful in the mission. The concept of ‘ibadat in Islam is very wide. It includes virtually all human endeavor and all human activities. Closely related to ‘ibadat is the concepts of istikhlaf (vicegerancy of the human on earth) and and isti’imar (building of a material civilization on earth). Both istikhlaf and isti’mar are part of the mission of humans on earth.

3.4.2 SCOPE OF THE MISSION, huduud al risaalat
The scope of the human mission is as wide as the scope of ‘ibadat. ‘Ibadat in Islam is comprehensive embracing all human endeavors done in sincerity and without disobeying any of Allah’s commands. Although every human endeavor can be ‘ibadat, only those undertaken with the correct intention, niyyat, are rewarded as ‘ibadat. An act of ‘ibadat can therefore not be accidental. It must be a consequence of a deliberate choice and intention. The human mission covers responsibility in the family, in the community, and in the eco-system.

The duration of human responsibility covers the present and the future. It does not include the past, no human can be held accountable for actions that they were not a party to. While humans undertake work to build and maintain a civilization today they must have a sense of responsibility for generations to come. The benefits of today must be balanced against the harm of tomorrow. The continuity of the mission requires that a human is engaged in a continuous way in fulfilling the mission. Since the mission is of finite duration, humans must be aware that there is accountability, hisaab, at the end with rewards and punishments. The nature and level of responsibility for the mission varies with time in two ways: chronological age and calendar time. Children, adults, and the elderly have different responsibilities. Different epochs in human history have posed different challenges and hence different levels of responsibility. With passage of time, humans tend to forget or neglect the mission. The constant challenge before humans is to resist forces of evil that take them away from their mission.

3.4.4 SUCCESS, falah
The Qur’an has used the word falah to refer to the success of humans in their mission. Success can be on earth or in the hereafter.  Complete success must be both on earth and the hereafter. Success on earth is a pre-requisite for success in the hereafter. However it is possible to succeed on earth but commit mistakes towards the end of earthly life that lead to failure and regret in the hereafter. Falah includes material success on earth and spiritual success. Both types of success depend on human effort on earth. It is a unique feature of Islam that all human endeavors that are good contribute to both types of success at the same time. Falah can be achieved by having a strong iman, tazkiyat, taqwat, ta’at, dhikr Allah, ‘amal salih, amr al ma'aruf, nahy al munkar, infaq, tawbat, and jihad.

3.4.5 FAILURE, khaibat
Failure at the individual level is not worshipping Allah as was enjoined. A community can fail if it does not follow and uphold the laws of Allah that are needed to guide human action. The failure of the human in his mission manifests as transgression dhulm, kufr, and ma’asiyat. Humans can fail in their mission as a result of internal motivation or external motivation. Internal motivation is due to innate evil promptings in the person that predispose to sinning or neglect of duty. External motivation is due to shaitan who presenting in the form of a human or jinn misleads the human and leads him or her to err. Most cases of human failure are due to the work of shaitan.

All humans were created from one single origin. This means that there are shared characteristics among all humans. All humans are from Adam. Modern discoveries about DNA and the molecular basis of life prove that there is a biological commonality that must have been caused by a common origin. Unity of humanity is based on the common biological origin. Islam does not accept the concept of sub-human types. Primates may have external features similar to humans but they are, like humans, a unique creation by Allah and not a sub-human type. As far as we know all offspring of Adam are on planet earth. Humans differ from angels and jinn. Humans have a physical body whereas angels are only energy. Humans have a free will but angels have none.

Humans started as one family that of Adam. They were at one time one community or nation. They share common traits. They have a sense of family and kinship. The sending of prophets to different communities with the same message has reinforced the common social origin of humanity. Because humans all arose from one primordial civilization, we can detect many similar social institutions in people living in different parts of the globe. The common social origin of all humans has also been reinforced by transmission of culture from place to place and from one generation to the next.

Biological similarities should actually point to one creator and not necessary one original primordial creature that evolved down the ages. Biological similarities among humans are based on common genetic control based on DNA, the same cellular structure and function, same chemical composition and function Human DNA is similar across many human groups. The cell is the basic building block of the body. There are hardly any detectable differences in structure or function of cells among different human groups. The bio-chemical and metabolic functions of the cells are all the same. There is specialization among cells therefore they differ in structure and some of their physiological functions. The ability of humans of different racial and ethnic groups to inter-breed is further proof of their biological similarity.

Biological differences indicate the power of the creator to create variations while at the same time there are commonalities. These differences were created by Allah and did not arise as passive adaptations to the environment. Allah deliberately created these differences to coincide with the geographical habitat, the environment, or the ecological niche in which they live. Basic biological differences among humans can be described as based on skin color and minor variations of body anatomy and physiology (weight, height, disease susceptibility, external physiognomy) that are used in a rather vague way to define three basic racial types: Caucasian, mongoloid, and Negroid. The races cannot be distinguished on the basis of genetic or DNA structure. Allah deliberately created differences in color as one of His signs. Skin color is due to varying amounts of melanin and carotene. Minor variations of body anatomy and physiology include weight, height, and external physiognomy. These are apparently not established differences because secular variations have been observed over time. There is no generally accepted scientific evidence that differences among humans due to the environment cumulate and lead to evolution of a different species. All humans are one species and can intermarry and reproduce.

Humans vary by gender, race, customs, language, and social organization. Males and females are different biologically, psychologically, and emotionally. These differences do not indicate superiority or inferiority. They are rather part of Allah’s scheme for a balanced society with specialized and complementary functions. There is no pure or homogenous race because of extensive interbreeding. Customs are ways of living followed by a great many people. They are transmitted from generation to generation. Customs are a factor of similarity within the community and factors of differences between communities. Different languages were created by Allah as one of His signs. Languages change continuously as they adapt to differing needs of communities. The physical environment imposes social similarities on all people living in it that differentiate them from those living in other environments. Each individual has a unique biological and spiritual identity. Not all people will be the same even when given equal opportunities. These differences do not by themselves confer any superiority. The only true criterion of human excellence is taqwa and only Allah can determine an individual’s level of taqwa.


4.1.1 Definition of Khilafat, Mafhuum Al Khilafat
4.1.2 Adam as the First Khalifat
4.1.3 Prophets as Models of Khilafat
4.1.4 The Righteous, Salihiin, as Models of Khilafat
4.1.5 The Transgressors as Failure of Khilafat

4.2.1 Definition of Taskhiir, Mafhuum Al Taskhiir
4.2.2 The Human Intellect: a Tool of Taskhir
4.2.3 The Food Chain
4.2.4 Natural Resources
4.2.5 The Ecosystem

4.3.1 General Concepts of Civilization
4.3.2 The Righteous, Al Saalihiin
4.3.3 The Transgressors, Al Dhaalimiin
4.3.4 Banu Israil
4.3.5 The Nasaara

4.4.2 Mesopotamia River Valleys
4.4.3 The Nile River Valley
4.4.4 The Indus River Valley
4.4.5 Huang He (China)

4.5.1 Geography and People of the Arabian Peninsular
4.5.2 Government in Pre-Islamic Arabia:
4.5.3 Religions of the Arabian Peninsular
4.5.4 Socio-Economic Conditions
4.5.5 Main Events before Islam

4.1.1 DEFINITION OF KHILAFAT, mafhuum al khilafat
Discussed here is khalifat al llaah ala al ardh and not khalifat rasuul al laah. The former is generic for all humans and the latter is only for political leaders. Success of the human as a khalifah is judged by 2 criteria: preventing evil, mani’u al fasaad, and preventing the spilling of blood, mani’u safk al dimaau. Based on its criteria, khilafat has a very wide scope that embraces all human endeavors including relations of the human with the creator, with fellow humans, with other living things, and with the whole eco-system. Khilafat is an honor for humans who were set upon the earth to build a civilization. Allah prepared humans for the duty of khilafat: He made the earth subservient to humans, taskhiir al ardh li al insaan, gave humans an intellect and a free will. Khilafat is a trust, amanat and accountability.


The Qur’an told the stories of various prophets as models of khilafat: Adam, Idris, Ibrahim and his sons (Ismail and Ishaq), Nuh, Salih, Shu’aib, Yunus, Lut, Hud, Musa, Harun, Daud, Sulaiman, Isa, and Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Them).

The righteous were Luqman, Dhi al Kifli, al Samiriyyi, Dhu al Qarnain, and Khidhr. Believing men are described in general by the Qur’an as the mujahidiin, the fearful of Allah, the callers to the good, the strivers towards the good, the truthful, the clean, and the believers. The Qur’an told stories of specific groups of believing men: people of the cave, the believing man from the village, a believing man from the people of Musa, and the believing man among the people of Pharaoh. The Qur’an described specific righteous women as the mothers of the believers, the wife of Ibrahim, the wife of Zakariyyah, the wife of Omran, the wife of Pharaon, the righteous woman, the 2 daughters of Shu’aib, Maryam, and the wife of Paharoh. The khulafa al rashidiin were among the righteous.  Scholar reformers all over the world were also models of khilafat.

The transgressors are iblis, the taghoot, the rich and powerful, and the unbelievers. Iblis had arrogance. He refused to bow to Adam and subsequently led him astray. He is an enemy of humans. He causes waswasat in humans. He leads people astray. The Qur’an gave examples of taghoot such as Nimrod, Pharaon, Dhu Nuwaas. The rich and powerful were Qarun, Haman, Jalut, Abu Lahab, and Abu Jahal. The unbelievers were people of Lut, owners of the garden, companions of the garden, people of the elephant, the wife of Lut, wife of Nuh, and the carrier of firewood.

4.2.1 DEFINITION OF TASKHIIR, mafhuum al taskhiir
Allah made all other creations subservient humans, taskhiir al kaainaat. Living and non-living things are used by humans for their benefit. Taskhir is temporary and on specific matters and can be taken away by Allah at any time. Human control and exploitation of the universe is not complete or perfect. Humans are the only living things able to change the environment around them. Taskhiir carries responsibilities. Taskhir is a privilege and not a right. The power given to humans to control the environment must be exercised with care maintain harmony and equilibrium in the universe. Humans in their arrogance forget or deny the great bounties Allah gave them by taskhir and get punished for this on earth and in the hereafter.

The human is not biologically the best-endowed creation of Allah. There are many animals bigger, stronger, and faster than humans. Humans are however able to control and use them because of a more developed brain and intellect. It is the intellect that enables humans to understand Allah’s signs in the universe and to benefit from them. Human intellect enabled the development and use of tools. This gave humans more ability to exploit and benefit from the earth’s natural resources. Using their intellect humans have developed sophisticated communication and are able to learn. They also have developed means of transportation.

The concept of rizq is wider than food and is best rendered as sustenance. The Qur’an mentions that Allah provides sustenance in the form of food for all living things on earth. Study of the food chains shows that it is not only humans who use and benefit from other creations. Humans are on top of the food chain; they can benefit from all other creations.

The term 'natural resources' refers to sources of energy and raw materials that Allah placed in the universe for the service of humans. This includes air, water, energy, minerals, the soil, plants and animals. Air provides the life-giving oxygen and is also a form of transportation. Wind movements clear the air, help in stabilizing temperatures and transfer pollen from one plant to another to cause fertilization. Water is the most important natural resource. It is the source of all life. It can irrigate arid land and return it to productivity. It is needed for growth of plants. The large body of water in the oceans has many benefits for humans such as transportation and as a source of marine food. Fire is the earliest and still the most important energy source. Other sources of energy are wind, electricity, light, sound, mechanical, nuclear, chemical, solar, and magnetic energy. The energy sources are inter-related and inter-convertible. The bowels of the earth provide minerals and metals that humans use as tools, ornamentation, and manufacture. The soil, clay, and stones are used in construction of houses. Trees are cut to provide fuel and building materials. Most of human food is of plant origin. Animals provide food and transportation. Many of their products are used by humans as medicines, clothing, ornamentations, and tools. Soil is used for farming and animal husbandry. It is used to build homes as shelters from the elements of the weather. Mountains are a source of esthetic pleasure.

Ecosystem refers to the physical environment and the organisms that it supports. The relations of mutual interdependency and harmonious existence of living and non-living things in any ecosystem are further evidence for existence of one creator. Too many creators could not have reached perfect agreement to produce such a well-coordinated ecosystem. The stability and harmony of the eco-system depend on balanced mutual exploitation with renewal such that all benefit. Water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, and noise pollution are increasing. Whole habitats and ecosystems are being destroyed. Conservation is protecting the resources and using them wisely.

History teaches us moral lessons. The origin of all civilizations is one. Each civilization has a fixed life-span. The isti’mar is physical construction and development of the earth. Humans developed civilization because of a sophisticated brain, erect posture, and a versatile hand that makes tools. Civilization went through stages of hunting & gatherers, agriculture, technology, and social development. Conflict and cycles of civilization are constant in human civilization. The weak become strong and the strong become weak. Each civilization has a fixed life span. The rise and fall of civilizations follows fixed social laws. The reasons for rise of civilizations are: innovation and dynamism, courage, adventurism and risk-taking, internal freedom, law and order, outward-looking, group feeling, big population, and natural resources. The reasons for fall of civilizations are intellectual stagnation, narrow ethno-centricism, oppression, demographic contraction, economic contraction, imbalance between reason and emotional, and imbalance between man and technology. No civilization can be eternal. Once a civilization collapses it can not return. Only the Islamic civilization can be revived after collapse. The climate determines the type of civilization. The Qur’an & sunnah can be bases for Islamic civilization.

4.3.2 THE RIGHTEOUS, al saalihin
The first human civilization was started with Adam and Hawa. It had all the ingredients of a modern civilization: disobedience, transgression, jealousy and violence. The Qur’an has told the stories of the righteous. Among them were the companions of the cave were righteous youths who escaped from an evil society. Sabeans are an ancient religious community in the Arabian Peninsula whose remnants are still found in modern Iraq. The Qur'an mentioned them among believers. We know little about their material civilization. The Kingdom of Saba was described as a prosperous and strong society under a gentle ruler who consulted her people before making a major decision.

4.3.3 THE TRANSGRESSORS, al dhaalimiin
The people of Ibrahim made statutes for worship. They lived under a despotic ruler who had no respect for human life. The people of Babel were engaged in teaching sorcery. The Egyptian society was divided between slaves and nobles. It was cowered into submission to the Pharaoh. There were however believing men and women among the Egyptians and the Israelis just as there were evil people among both groups; Qarun was a degenerate Israili while Haman was an evil Egyptian. The wife of Pharaoh was herself a believer. The Qur’an tells the story of the people of the trenches who were believers burned by fire under the cruel king Jewish Dhu Nuwaas in Yaman. The people of the elephant were a strong military power in Yaman and they tried to destroy the Kaaba in the year of the prophet’s birth. The Qur’an tells us about civilizations that were evil and were finally destroyed, the people of Thamud, the people of Rass, and the people of Ya’ajuuj and Ma’ajuuj are a group of humans who committed fasad on earth.


5.1.1 The Gender Issue
5.1.2 General Principles
5.1.3 Gender Differences
5.1.4 Equity and Equality
5.1.5 The Law of the Woman, fiqh al mar at (Abd al Karim Zaydan)

5.2.1 Family: Structure and Function
5.2.2 Rights and Responsibilities
5.2.3 Leadership in the Family:
5.2.4 Success of the Family
5.2.5 Family Destruction

5.3.1 Purposes and Nature of Marriage
5.3.2 Selection of the Spouse:
5.3.3 Success of Marriage
5.3.4 Marital Dysfunction
5.3.5 Marital Failure

5.4.1 Good Treatment of Parents, birr al waalidayn:
5.4.2 Duties to Parents, huquuq al waalidayn
5.4.3 Mistreatment of Parents, ‘uquuq al walidayn:.
5.4.4 Good treatment of the kin, birr al arhaam:
5.4.5 Relations as Social Insurance:

5.5.1 Growth and Development
5.5.2 Relations of Parents and Children
5.5.3 Moral and Social Development:
5.5.4 Intellectual Development:
5.5.5 Discipline:

Islamic Law assigns roles, rights, and obligations based on the acknowledgement of similarities and differences between the genders. The Qur’anic concept of parity, zawjiyat, is the basis for complementary relations between males and females. Issues of equity, equality, justice, and division of labor are associated with parity. Males and females are from the same creation (7:189).  Males and females are allies of one another (9:71). Males and females get reward equal to that of men for work that they do (4:124). Women’s opinions are respected (58:1). Women participate in the political process (61:12). The testimony of one woman is equal to that of one man (24:6-9) except in some business transactions. Women fought side by side with men (Muslim 3:1001, Chapter 743, Hadith #4453). Despite many equal or similar challenges and responsibilities, women should not behave like men because they are different (Bukhari 7:513, hadith #773).

Women and men are equal in their religious, ethical, civil rights, duties and responsibilities (16:97). Exceptions are very few and arise because of different responsibilities (4:34) or differences in basic biological nature. The Qur’an assures religious equality (3:175, 9:71-72, 16:97), ethical equality (3:195, 9:71-72, 16:97), and civil equality (60:12, 5:38, 24:2, 4:32). Men and women are from the same creation. They have equal worth, equal moral and legal status, equal religious and educational rights, and equal reward for equal or equivalent work. Women and men are equally challenged in some activities and are unequally challenged in others. Women have their individuality, responsibility, and accountability independent of men. Islam fosters a dual and not unisex society. There should be no competition between the genders but interdependency. Women are allies of men. Men and women need one another.

Each gender should accept its identity and not try to compete with or emulate the other (4:32). Biological, psychological, and emotional differences between the genders are Allah's plan for a balanced society and do not confer consistent advantage or superiority to one gender to the disadvantage of the other. There are very few established and consistent gender differences. Men are superior to women in visual-spatial abilities and quantitative abilities. Women are superior to men in verbal ability. Males and females communicate differently.

Different does not automatically mean unequal. What is needed is equity and not similarity. The rules of Sharia and acts of worship in Islam apply equally to men and women. There are only a few differences in the details due to different natures of men and women and role prioritization. Islamic law gives the women full competence to own and dispose of property before and after marriage. Working outside the home is allowed if it does not hurt the family and rules of modesty and interaction with the other gender are followed. Islamic law forbids forced marriage of women. The sharia allows a woman to propose marriage. She can accept or reject any suitor. A woman can legally obtain a divorce from an unwilling husband. Men have special leadership roles in a conjugal relationship. It must however be remembered that the relationship started with free consent of the woman. The Law places very few restrictions on women. Most verses are restrictions on men to prevent their transgression against the rights and modesty of women.

The woman is a human being like the man. She is not responsible for the original sin; Adam and Hawa were equally guilty.  Her work is accepted by Allah as much as is the work of the man. She is not a bad omenShe has the right to inherit and the right to own property. She is equal to the man in rights and obligations. The woman differs from the man in the amount of diyat, the amount of inheritance, and giving court evidence. There are gender-specific regulations for taharat, ibadat, dress, and child custody. The rest of the Law makes no distinction between men and women. The woman has a right to work. The work may be ‘amal duniyawi or’amal ukhrawi. “Amal ukhrawi is obligatory for both men and women. Work of the duniya, ‘amal al duniya, for purposes of earning a living is obligatory for men, waajib ‘ala al rijaal, and mubaah for women if certain conditions are fulfilled. The woman has a role in public leadership.

The family is both a social and biological unit. Members are related by either marriage or parentage. The family has sexual/reproductive, social, psychological, and economic functions.

Each member of the family husband wife, or child, has both rights and responsibilities. In a healthy family, members fulfill their obligations and responsibilities before demanding their rights. Both parents are jointly responsible for the upbringing of their children (aqidat, emotional, physical, psychological, and social). Each of the spouses has rights and responsibilities to the other.

The husband is the legal and customary head of the family. His leadership is based on more responsibilities. He is legally responsible for the financial up keeping of the family. There are many aspects of the family's life in which the wife's leadership must be recognized because she is the specialist. The extent of the wife’s responsibility varies by culture and custom. The wife is the primary educator of children shaping their character and personality. The wife and children must obey the head of the family in order to keep the family united and orderly. He in turn should listen to and respect the opinions and interests of all members of the family. A family cannot survive if there are two equal and competing heads. A wife who wants the success of her family and its happiness will defer to the husband's leadership role.

Habits for family success are learned from childhood. Careful selection of the spouse is necessary. Any defects found after marriage are either corrected or are tolerated. Spiritual development is by remembering Allah often, praying in the home regularly, inculcating iman in the children, following the sunnat and reading the Qur’an regularly. The family library should contain good books and audio-visual materials. Shura should be established by discussing family matters with the spouse and children. Children should not see conflicts between parents. The head of the family must exercise control over family activities with compassion and firmness. He should monitor what the children are doing. Meal and sleep times must be fixed. All members of the family should cooperate in the household work. Members of the family can joke and have fun with one another. The family should buy only what it needs. Indebtedness must be avoided. In order for members of the family to interact and develop the necessary bonds, they need time together and privacy from the rest of the community. Family secrets should be kept within the home. All members of the family must feel secure in their home physically, financially, psychologically, and emotionally. Members of the family may have to make sacrifices to make sure that their families are secure. The sacrifice may be time, financial or even accepting some inconveniences and humiliations.

Since a successful family is the basic building block of society, its destruction means destruction of the whole society. Family destruction could be due to internal or external factors. The internal factors are zina and its antecedents. The external factors are: socio-economic and political stresses. Family destruction is prevented by education, tarbiyyah, early marriage, following the sharia, maintaining the privacy of the home, avoiding ziba, and avoiding the antecedents of zina (ikhtilaat, khalwat). A moral social environment, a confortable socio-economic environment, and respect for human rights protect families from destruction.

Marriage is a natural institution that is encouraged. It is a civil contract that is legally valid under these conditions: 2 adult witnesses, question and answer, and mahr. Unlike other civil contracts, it cannot be concluded for a limited duration. No conditions repugnant to the sharia can be valid in a marriage contract. Marriage is a source of psychological, social, and emotional tranquility and stability. It protects from sexual corruption. It provides the best social structure for childbearing and child rearing. The ideal age for marriage varies by gender and society. Exogamy and monogamy are preferred. Polygamy is allowed in some situations and forbidden if justice cannot be maintained. Success in marriage depends on selection of the right spouse, spousal compatibility (psychological, emotional, socio-economic and culture), and tolerance and adjustment for incompatibilities. The qualities looked for in a husband are religious commitment, kindness, a gentle attitude to women, intelligence, strength of personality, a good family background, a known lineage, knowledge of the Qur’an and sunnat. The qualities of a prospective wife are: religion, pedigree, wealth, and beauty. The best and permanent value is religion (Islam, iman, taqwat). A good wife is patient, humble, charitable, sincere, loyal, trusting, supportive, obedient without feeling inferior, peaceful, cheerful, modest, chaste, and respectful of the husband's parents, relatives, and friends.

The pillars of marriage are pronouncement, witnesses, wali, bride, and bridegroom. The prospective spouses must be of legal age and legally competent. Social equality and financial ability are desirable but are not necessary condition. Exogamy is preferred for medical reasons. Mahr establishes the woman’s financial independence. A good spouse is the best asset on earth. Each spouse must be prepared to adapt and to try to do what will please the other one. The following factors determine success of failure of the relationship: successful communication, love and empathy, kindness, mutual respect, mutual understanding, respect for rights and responsibilities, sexual attractiveness, conflict resolution and control of jealousy.

Marital failure manifests in the appearance of the home, and behavior of the 2 spouses. The general atmosphere in the home is unhappiness. There is depression, loss of interest, and de-motivation. The following are possible causes of marital problems: sexual dysfunction, poor communication, infidelity, incompatibility, mental illness, personal incompetence of either spouse, social stresses, social dysfunction, and poor communication. Misunderstandings should be minimized. The best policy is to avoid conflict by each spouse doing what pleases and avoiding what annoys the other. Unresolved conflicts could lead to spousal physical or emotional abuse. Primarily the two spouses talking to one another and finding the cause of conflict should solve conflicts. If they cannot resolve the matter they should seek arbitration by people of wisdom and character.

A marriage can be dissolved by death, divorce, or annulment by a court of law. Although permitted, divorce is the most hated of the permitted things. Reconciliation should be attempted before the final divorce. Even after divorce, good treatment of the wife in enjoined by the institution of the post-divorce financial support. When a divorce occurs, both spouses are partners in the failure. The following factors are related to the risk of divorce (1) Socio-economic (SES) differences between spouses (2) a big age difference or both being too young (3) financial difficulties. Divorce is preceded by (1) withdrawal of love (2) lack of attention to the needs of each spouse (3) belittling (4) criticism. Divorce impacts both the spouses: anger, depression, and a feeling of relief if the relation was abusive. Children of divorce are affected economically and emotionally. They cannot understand what happened. The effects are long-term. The signs and symptom of family failure are bad physical appearance of the home (dirt, poverty), poor behavior and interaction of family members (conflict, laziness, lack of outings and regular meals). The house is not organized and is often dirty. Conflict is the commonest manifestation of family failure. Love and mutual help are replaced by acrimony and bad feelings. Conflict is commonest between the spouses. It could also occur between parents and children or among the children. Other members of the extended family may also be involved. Lack of routines and regular meals are manifestations of lack of leadership and initiative in a failing family. Laziness indicates lack of purpose and low motivation.

5.4.1 GOOD TREATMENT OF PARENTS, birr al waalidayn:
The Qur'an has in many verses enjoined good treatment of parents. Good treatment of parents is one of the most loved work to Allah, is a reason for entering heaven, and has great rewards. Good treatment covers both the father and the mother. The mother has preference in companionship. Birr al walidayn includes doing good for them, honoring them, praying for them, and extending the good treatment to their friends. The friends must be respected during the life and after the death of the parents.

Parents must be respected and never shown any contempt whatever their behavior. Each spouse should show consideration to the parents of the other spouse like his or her own parents. Talking to parents must be polite without raising the voice. Righteous parents should be followed. Parents must be obeyed as long as they do not order committing a sin. Their reputation and wealth must be kept. Attempts must be made to do what pleases them. They must be consulted in all matters and apologies must be offered them if for some reason their advice cannot be followed. There must be an immediate response when parents call. Kindness and generosity to parents in their senility and weakness is only a partial repayment of their efforts when the children were young. Gratitude for the parents' suffering and sacrifices must be shown. Their friends must be treated with generosity. The following are done for them: standing up to greet them, kissing their head, helping them with their work, and visiting frequently.

5.4.3 MISTREATMENT OF PARENTS, uquuq al walidayn:
Parents cannot be abused, insulted, or cursed. Cursing or mistreating parents is considered one of the major sins and leads to severe punishment. Allah responds to parents' dua against their children. The voice should not be raised in the presence of parents. Parents must always be told the truth and no lies should ever be told to them whatever the excuse. The grandchildren and spouses cannot be preferred above parents in any situation. Generosity must be extended to parents; miserliness to them should be avoided. Parents of others should never be mistreated or insulted. They may insult your parents as a return and you will have caused injury to your own parents.

The near kindred are described in the sunnat. The Qur’an enjoins good treatment of the near kindred. This includes feeding them, giving them financial support, , joining kindred relations, and loving them. They have definite rights that should not be violated and these include rights of inheritance as enunciated in the law of inheritance. There is great reward for joining kindred relations. A person is rewarded for good companionship with relations. It is sin to cut off kindred relations. Doing good for relations is expiation from sins. Kindred relations are more deserving of charity. It is duty to call the kindred relations to Islam. However love for kindred relations should not stand in the way of establishing the truth.

Islam teaches joining kindred relations and castigates cutting them off. The extended family is supposed to be an association for mutual material and psychological support. Good relations within this association ensure that help will be available at the time of need.

Growth refers to increase in body size. The stages of physical growth are: infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and old age. Development increases functional specialization and capability. It includes both maturation and increasing experience. It has biological, cognitive, and social aspects. It is a continuous process. Later development builds on earlier experiences. Breast-feeding by the mother is strongly emphasized because it is the best nutrition in the first stages of growth and also has important psychological effects. Development impairments early in life could affect the capacity for development later in life. Parents must be aware of the rapid growth and development of children and should adapt their parenting to the requirements of each stage of growth and functional development.

A child must belong to a set of parents, a family and a community. Lineage is the basis of self-identification and self esteem. The name influences self-concept, identity, and self-esteem. Love for children is natural and ensures protection and for the children. The love for children and their treatment should be the same for all regardless of gender. Parent communication with children must be open, honest, mutual, nurturing, and consistent. Parents must have time to play with their children. Successful parenting requires a high tolerance level for children. Children's actions and behavior cannot be judged by adult standards. Each child is an individual; each is different. Parents should teach the following to children: love of Allah, loving jannat, hating jahannam, salat by age 7, reading and memorization of Qur’an, telling the truth, avoiding kufr and the prohibited, avoiding shirk, rules of dress especially for girls, using the right hand, basmalah before any activity, adhan and its response, avoiding bad company, bravery, and revenge against the transgressors. 

Children are born in a pure and natural state, fitrat; it is the environment that shapes them into either good or bad people. The first 7-10 years are the formative period of personality. Influences at this stage of life, positive or negative, have long lasting impact. The age of legal maturity is defined biologically as either 15 years or the appearance of definitive signs of puberty. Attaining the age of legal maturity does not mean attaining wisdom. Many problems arise from high expectations of legally mature but unwise children. Good manners and attitudes are not taught but are shown to children. The social environment that children are exposed to should be carefully controlled. Children must be guided to understand moral issues. Moral values can be taught by use of stories since young children cannot appreciate abstract notions. Children should be taught the kalima, love of Allah, love of jannat, reliance on Allah, salat, reading Qur'an, attending salat al-Jama’at, truthfulness, hard work, love of learning, exploration, bravery, and courage. Selfishness should be discouraged. Children should be warned against sins such as: kufr, shirk, gambling, pornography, and smoking. They should be taught to wear Islamic dress, to use the right hand, cleanliness, and respect for the visitor.

Children are not a tabula rasa. They certainly are born with instinctive knowledge of their creator. However their data bank is limited. Their ability to learn from the environment is also limited. Development is individual and there are no fixed norms. Tarbiyah must be related to the level of intellectual and social development. Genetic endowment determines basic intelligence and its potential or ceiling. Environmental stimulation enables reaching the potential. Children understand and retain information at a level higher than what most parents imagine. Children are born with an inner drive to investigate, explore and learn from the environment that should be used in the learning process. Learning should be a pleasure. Fear or scoldings are counter productive. A warm and democratic home fosters intellectual growth. The layout, organization and running of the home should be designed to facilitate child development and not for the convenience of adults. The first intellectual skills that should be taught are language skills. Language influences the way people think. The first words that children learn should emphasize Iman. Complex, detailed, stimulating language should be used. Read to children as early as possible. Early interest in books carries through to adulthood. A second language should be taught as soon as the primary language is stable. A second language is best mastered before puberty. Arabic, the language of the Qur’an, is the preferred second language. There should be zero tolerance for colloquial Arabic.

Children should be taught obedience. Obedience is an attitude. It starts with obedience of Allah then the parents then those in authority. It also includes obedience of the physical laws and acceptance of social realities. Disobedient individuals tend to be marginal individuals in society; they may commit crimes and cannot be good and religious individuals with stable family life. Obedience should be taught by example. A wife obeying her husband and a husband obeying his parents are very good models for children. Disciplining of children must be firm, fair and appropriate. There must be house rules that are not broken. Too much scolding or belittling is child abuse. Children should be treated as individuals. They must be respected as humans with rights, feelings and concerns. As individuals they have a God-given self-worth and an identity that is unique. Children cannot be the same and should not be expected to behave is similar ways. Neither should you expect your children to be exactly like you. Children must be loved and that love should be shown. Parental love for the youngest children should never be conditional. Preference for either male or female children is an un-Islamic custom. Building self-esteem in children requires time and effort. Teach them to communicate their feelings. Listen to them. Negotiate and compromise with them in matters that are not strict rules. Your disciplining must be fair and consistent. Give them responsibilities and tasks. Allow them to make some decisions. Have a sense of humor. Give them loving care.


6.1.1 The Roles of the Masjid
6.1.2 The Regulations of the Masjid
6.1.3 The Mosque of Makka
6.1.4 The Masjids of Madina
6.1.5 Jerusalem Masjid, al masjid al aqsa

6.3.1 Duties of Brotherhood
6.3.2 Social Interaction
6.3.3 Social Etiquette
6.3.5 Social Diseases, amraadh ijtima’iyyat

6.3.2 Mutual Social Support in the Community
6.3.3 Support for Special Social Groups
6.3.4 The Welfare Society and Social Justice

6.4.1 Defintions: Shuura vs Tashaawur?:
6.4.2 Shuura in the Qur’an and Sunnat
6.4.3 Shuura: Obligatory and Binding
6.4.4 Historical Evolution of Shura:
6.4.5 Rulings about Shuura

6.5 MAAL
6.5.1 Rizq
6.5.2 Maal
6.5.3 Property Rights
6.5.4 The Economic System
6.5.5 Accumulation of Wealth and Its Regulation

The mosque is the center of the community around which all community activities take place. It is open and active during salat and during non-salat times for community activities. Mosques are built on the basis of taqwa. Ibadat especially salat manifests taqwa. Ibadat activities include salat, i’itikaaf, and dhikr. Regular masjid attendance is a sign of spiritual health and is necessary for community building. The masjid is a forum for tarbiyat and leadership training. The following social services can be provided at the masjid: medical care, health education, disease screening, primary health care, child care, and elderly care. Community administrative affairs can be carried out in the mosque such as muhakamaat and li’aan.

The masjid should be the geographical center of the community. It should be simple in construction avoiding excessive decoration. Facilities at a modern masjid include: a salat hall, a school, a clinic, social welfare services facilities, and sports facilities. The local community should own and look after its masjid. The main administrative officials of a masjid are the imam and muaddhin helped by other officials as the need may be. All Muslims should have free access to the masjid. Worshippers should be clean in body and dress to show respect for the masjid and those who frequent it. They should come with calmness. A dua is said on entering and exiting a mosque. Two raka’ats are offerred on entry into the mosque. The following are encouraged in the masjid: sitting for long periods, offering salat, and frequenting the masjid. The voice should not be raised in the mosque. Weapons and dirty things are prohibited in the mosque. Bad odors are not allowed in the mosque The following are permitted activities in the mosque: salat, reading Qur'an, education, medical care, social welfare, political activity, eating, sitting in the mosque, sleeping, reciting poetry, government, The following are prohibited in the masjid: controversial matters, violence, commerce, noise, execution of huduud, selling and buying, sexual relations, and shirk practices.

The kaaba is the sacred house, al bayt al haraam, the sacred masjid, al masjid al haraam, the house, al bayt, the sanctuary, al haram, or the ka’aba. It is called the old house, al bayt ‘atiiq, because it was the first house of worship to be built by Ibrahim and Ismail. It has been rebuilt several times eversince. The city of Makka is called Makka, Bakka, and Umm al Qura in the Qur’an. It is a city of peace, al balad al amiin, that will never be invaded until the Last Day. Plague and Dajjaal will never enter it. The haram al shariif is an area around the masjid that has special sanctity. It is an area of peace and security. Temporary visitors to the haram have the same rights as the permanent residents. It is prohibited to carry weapons in the sanctuary. The plants and animals of the sanctuary are protected. The haram has calmness, is a place of ibadat and tawaaf, a venue of hajj, and a qiblat of Muslims. It was also the start of isra and mi’iraaj. Non-believers and polytheists are not allowed in the sanctuary

The prophet declared the area between the two lobes of Madina as a sanctuary. The prophet on arrival in Madina bought land for the mosque and started building. It has been rebuilt and widened several times eversince. There are other mosques in and around Madina. Masjid al Qiblatain is famous because of the change of the direction of the qiblat. The prophet and Omar used to visit Masjid Quba every Saturday.

6.1.5 JERUSALEM MOSQUE, al masjid al aqsa
The Jerusalem mosque is also called bayt al maqdis or masjid al isra. It was the first qiblat for Muslims. It is the second mosque. The prophet ordered salat in al masjid al aqsa. Such salat has a lot of good. The dajjaal will not be able to enter bayt al maqdis.

There are several types of brotherhood. Ukhuwwat insanuyyat is universal human brotherhood shared by all humans. Ukhuwwat imaniyat is brotherhood shared by all believers. Ukhuwwat islamiyat is based on self-identification as a Muslim. Ukhuwwat shaitaniyat is based on common allegiance to shaitan. Ukhuwwat nasabiyyat is based on blood relations. Brotherhood is the basis for positive relations among people. The prescribed duties of brotherhood taught by the Prophet (PBUH) are: returning greetings, visiting the sick, following the funeral procession, accepting invitations, and responding to the sneezer. These represent the minimum that a brother must do for his brother. The general duties of brotherhood are taking care of the weak, ibraar al qasam, nasiihat for every Muslim, tolerance of differences, overlooking minor injustices, flexibility, forgiving when annoyed, reconciling between people, loving good for other Muslims, helping the weak and the oppressed, solving problems, fulfilling needs, compassion, kindness, caring giving moral support to others and helping them fight shaitan, protecting the honor of Muslims and not broadcasting their weaknesses, keeping secrets, concealing faults of other Muslims as long as there is no dhulm, fulfilling promises and commitments, good behavior and good manners even with evil people, interdependence, maintaining relations, humility, mutual respect, respect for the elderly, respecting leaders of other people, and  respecting cultural and personal differences as long as they are within bounds of the Law. The special rights of love and respect are for scholars, parents, relations, neighbors, guests, the poor, the needy, the weak, and the traveller. The following should also be respected in a special way: colleagues, those devoted to Islam, and those with opposing views.

Formal groups are large and impersonal. Informal groups are small but personal. The family is an informal group that is intimate and personal. A person can belong to several informal or formal groups at the same time. The term jama’at is used to refer to Muslim groups. Relations between people may be positive or negative. Relations must be genuine. Interaction evolves from the stage of initial meeting (i'ltiqa), selection, choice and conscious decision to cooperate (intiqa), and rising above selfish interests to secure a higher common purpose (irtiqa). Social interaction can be cooperation, competition, or conflict. Interdependence is a basis for social interaction. Social power is control the actions of other people. It can be physical, formal authority, or influence. Some control is needed for efficient functioning of society. Social deviation is failure to conform to customary norms.

Etiquette of the meal is starting with tasmiyat, using the right hand, eating what is infront, being humble, and not criticizing the food, thanking Allah at the end of the meal, attending a meal only by invitation and not bringing along an uninvited guest, a dua for the host, and leaving immediately after eating. Forgiveness, humility, and self improvement are encouraged. Spying, pride, anger, jealousy, approaching zina, transgression, and hatred are discouraged. The rights of the guest and the host must be respected. Conversation should be polite and moral. Manners of the road must be observed. Unity, cooperation, and reconciliation should be encouraged. The good is enjoined and the bad is forbidden.

6.2.4 SOCIAL DISEASES, amraadh ijtima’iyyat
Dhulm is ruling by what Allah did not enjoin, physical and psychological harassment of others, and violating the rights of others. Corruption is in the form of bribery, nepotism, and favoritism. Mass media cause annoyance for Muslims, backbiting, rumor mongering, mockery, lying, abuse, and false accusations.

Mutual social support in the family includes good treatment of parents, giving help to relatives, child care, and inheritance to assure financial support fot surviving members of the family. The Islamic system of inheritance makes sure that the wealth of the deceased is distributed among as many relatives as is possible so that excessive wealth accumulation can not be transferred from generation to generation.

Believers are like walls a building that supports one another. A person cannot be a true believer until he likes for his brother what he loves for himself. A believer who relieves stress from a Muslim will have his stress relieved on the last day. Kindness and empathy are enjoined. Charity is given to the needy who ask and those who do not ask.

Some social groups require more support and attention than others. Orphans must be taken care of and their wealth must not be embezzled. The widow and orphan are weak members of society who have a right to relief. Orphans should be fed and clothed. Travelers are often in need of help when they are far from their communities. Indebted Muslims also need relief when they have no other way of clearing their debts.

The community must help the poor in order to establish social justice. Feeding the poor is expiation of sins. Working to help the maskin is like engagement in jihad. Those who feed the maskin have strength of heart. Clothing the makiin is a great action. Zakat is taken from the rich and is given to the poor. Poverty can be relieved by zakat and sadaqat.

Shurat al jama is used by the community uses to reach decisions binding on the leaders and individuals. It is is a legal obligation with its rules and procedures. Tashawur is discusion of different views to select what is the best without being binding. Being advisory it is neither obligatory nor binding. The prophet consulted his followers. He taught that he who consults does not regret and does not go wrong. The scope of shuur a was limited in the lifetime of the prophet because wahy was available. The khukafa al rashiddin used shuura extensively in reaching decisions. With the end of the rightly guided khilafat, shuura was suppressed by the dynastic dictatorships. The decline of the early Islamic state after the khilafat rashidat can be directly linked to weakening of shura. Return of shura is heralding the contemporary Islamic revival. Shura is very important in the community for the following reasons. Decisions reached through consultation are likely to be correct decisions. Shuura decisions that have the support of the people. They ensure unity of the ummah. They are easier to implement than imposed solutions.

Shura is a type of ijtihad that can be right or wrong. It is obligatory, wajib, and binding, mulzim. Participation in shuura is a political right for each citizen, male or female. The form of exercising this right is not defined to allow time and space flexibility. Shura can be undertaken by: ahl al hill wa al iqd, the whole jama’at, the ulama, or specialists in various fields. Ahl al hill wa al iqd who are knowledgeable and are accepted by people (election or appointment) decide on political matters. All people can participate in shuura if the matter is of public and general concern and it is understandable by an average citizen. Ummah's consensus is not in error if the issues are understood and emotions are not involved. Participation of the whole ummah is in the form of a plebiscite or a well conducted public opinion survey. The Ulama can represent the Ummah in issues of a legal nature. Ulama are subject experts in Law who advise and guide ahl al hill wa al iqd in political decisions.  Experts in various scientific, technological, medical, and social disciplines advise ahl al hill wa al iqd and do not make binding decisions on their own. The following principles must be observed in the shura process: justice, ‘adalah; objectivity; consideration of space-time factors; adherence to a system of higher values and objectives, balance, and public education. Shura must achieve balance between majority and minority views, between expertise, knowledge, and experience on one hand and public will on the other. Mistakes in shura are lessened if community is well educated and understands maqasid al sharia. Shura is undertaken on matters for which there is no textual evidence or where the text is not interpretable in a definitive way. Shura covers all matters of religion and the world but the main areas of shurat al jamaat are security, war, and peace; applications of the Law; installation of the imaam; financial policy; oversight of government; and new issues arising, al mustajiddaat. Shuura is concerned with policy and not administrative detail.

Shura is not confined to politics and government. It is a a social institution and a way of life to be followed in the home, economic activities, scholarship, and social life. Socialization for shura involves training and practice starting from the home. The community must stick to shura even if mistakes occur through following the shura process. Spread of knowledge and education enable all citizens to participate meaningfully in the shura process. The procedure of shuura is not defined in detail to allow flexibility to time-space factors. Generally a shura council should make most decisions. Very crucial and strategic decisions should be decided by plebiscite. The methods of reaching a decision are flexible. The majority view predominates not because of numbers but because it is right. The majority has to convince the minority and not impose on it. Basically the methodolgy of usul al fiqh based on Qur'an, sunnah, qiyas, ijma, and masalih mursala is followed.

Ijma is a type of ijtihad and a form of shuura. Generally ijma is made by representatives with the consent of the rest of the ummah. The consensus may be explicit, ijma qawli, or may be implicit, ijma sukuuti. Fiqh, ijtihad, ulama and mujtahidin must be in institutions independent of government to ensure freedom of thought. These institutions are academic resources that support the elected legislature. The ulama can be equally consulted by government and by ordinary people. The ulama cannot impose their ijtihad on any one. Individuals must be free to choose what opinions to follow.

6.5.1 RIZQ
The Islamic concept of rizq is very different from the western one and explains the major difference between Islamic and western economics. In Islam rizq is expansive. European economic thinking is based on scarcity of resources. Rizq is sustenance from Allah. Allah’s rizq is good and is abundant. Allah can give rizq in abundance. He can also contract the rizq. There are differences in the rizq that Allah bestows on different people.

6.5.2 MAAL
Maal, mentioned 76 times in the Qur’an, can be maal mubaah or maal haraam. It is a means and not an end. It can be used to do good or to do bad. Maal as exchange in buying and selling to fulfil basic human needs, as compensation for work, a a means to political power, and as the basis for the husband’s leadership in the family. Maal like life is protected by Law. Collection of maal is a human instinct. Humans are happy with maal and are proud because of it. Some people love maal. Others have renounced maal. Maal is fitnat (temptation) and is a test (ibtilaau). It can keep people too preoccupied and they do not undertake jihad or remembrance of Allah. Economic self-reliance is earning a living by working. Halaal earnings are praised. Haraam earnings are not blessed. Maal is earned by trade, agriculture, manfacture, or providing services. Being rich is having plenty of maal. It is a source of enjoyment. It may arise from working and earning, from donations, and from inheritance. The relationship between amount of maal and feeling rich is complex and involves psychological factors. Some with plenty of maal may feel poor because they aspire for more. Some own very e maal may feel rich because they are satisfied with what they have. There are many forms of maal: money, offspring, tangible and intangible property. All maal is from Allah. Maal may be associated with good attributes such as modesty and generosity. It may also be associated with bad attributes such as miserliness, transgression, kufr, and nifaaq.

Islam asserts the right to private property that is transferable to others by gift, sale, or inheritance. Maal is a trust from Allah. The human is a custodian of mal; the real owner is Allah. The human is just a vicegerent in maal. The needy have a right in a Muslim’s property. Maal should not be given to the foolhardy, safiih, who will waste it.  Ultimately the only permanent benefit for a human from his or her maal is the thawaab from sadaqat. The Law prescribes sanctity of maal, hurmat al maal. Maal cannot be destroyed. The of a Muslim is protected by Law. Special emphasis is placed on the wealth of the orphan, maal al yatiim.

Allah enjoined humans to exploit the earth. Earning one’s livelihood was better than dependency but the community must support those incapable of working. Economic activity within a moral context leads to success on earth and the hereafter, international brotherhood, equity, justice, equal opportunity, social welfare, and economic efficiency. It must fulfil the 5 purposes of the Law (maqasid al sharia) and strengthen jihad capabilities. The haraam is defined leaving the rest as mubaah. The Law allows free markets, the profit incentive, private property, and free enterprise within a moral context and limits of the Law. Fabrication of a utopian economic system and imposing it in the name of Islam is very dangerous. The Law allows people the initiative and creativity to experiment and find the best system for their time and place within the regulations of the Law. The interdependence of the economic systems in the world means that an isolated Islamic economic system is difficult to maintain. However any attempts to establish an Islamic economy, even if not yet perfect, are a step in the right direction and should be encouraged. Two Islamic economic institutions have been successful in our times: Islamic banking and Islamic insurance.

Humans differ in rizq. Some inequality is needed for motivation and maintenance of a dynamic economy. The law ensures equity and equality of opportunity but cannot guarantee equality of actual achievements. Excessive accumulation of maal leads to corruption, exploitation, hyperconsumption, and waste. Excessive accumulation of maal by one individual is restricted by limiting economic activity to the halaal goods and services, prohibition of dishonest transactions, encouragement of giving, imposition of zakat, financial support of the family and relatives, and a system of inheritance that distributes the estate of the deceased among several inheritors.


7.1.1 The Essentials of Life
7.1.2 Dress and Ornamentation
7.1.3 Entertainment, tarfiih/tarwiih
7.1.4 Social Failure

7.2.1 Antecedents of Zina
7.2.2 Sexual Promiscuity
7.2.3 Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Practices
7.2.4 Abnormal Marital Arrangements
7.2.5 Sex-Related Crimes

7.4.1 Definition of the Addiction Problem
7.4.2 Dependence and Addiction
7.4.3 Rulings about Khamr
7.4.4 Non-Alcoholic Drug Addiction
7.4.5 Prevention and Treatment of Drug Abuse

7.4.1 Nature and Causes of Poverty
7.4.2 Effects of Poverty
7.4.3 Mitigation of Poverty: Social Welfare
7.4.4 Eradication of Poverty
7.4.5 Misuse of Wealth, taraf

7.5.1 Taking Life
7.5.2 Abuse of Women
7.5.3 Violence to Children
7.5.4 Abuse of the Elderly
7.5.5 Other Forms of Violence

The essentials of life are food, water, shelter, security, and clothing. The functions of food are providing body, body growth, and body maintenance in the best condition. Meals together strengthen social relations are are a form of entertainment The Law forbids foods specific foods and drinks that are injurious to good health leaving the rest of foods as mubaah. It is prudent to avoid foods whose status is doubtful. The malnutrition of the rich is over consumption that leads to disease. Malnutrition of the poor is inadequate intake. Allah provides rizq for all living things. There is enough food in the world but its distribution is poor; some have too much while others starve. Food shortage is also caused by war, political instability, social injustice, or economic inefficiency. Humans throughout history have struggled, worked, and even went to war to ensure food security. Water is is necessary for all chemical reactions in body metabolism. It is used for cleaning and temperature regulation. The functions of the house are protection from the weather and aggression, privacy, child-rearing, social interaction, rest and entertainment. Humans need physical security, psychological security, and emotional security. The functions of clothes are protection from the weather, modesty and covering nakedness, beauty, identification for social intercourse, occupational purposes, and ibadat. The Law enjoins covering the ‘awrat but gives a wide latitude on how that can be done. Different dress fashions enable humans derive pleasure from clothes. Dressing for arrogance of for fame is forbidden.

Humans unlike animals must cover their nakedness for for human dignity and preventing sexual stimulation. The limit of awrat in salat is the standard. The man's awrat is between the navel and the knee. The woman's awrat is her entire body except the face and the hands. Awrat should be covered al the time. Exposure of awrat to others is generally forbidden except for exceptions based on age, gender, social status, fear of temptation, family relations, or occupational needs. Covering of awrat is relaxed for elderly women, for young children unaware of sexuality, for servants working inside the house, and for women infront of other women. The spouse can see the whole awrat. Close relatives (male and female), children, and servants in the hiuse are allowed to see the awrat of a woman except between the navel and the knee. Covering more than the minimum is required of temptation is feared. A handsome man should cover the legs and the upper part of the body. A stunningly beautiful woman should veil her face. Innocent non-repeated or non-purposive looks at non-awrat parts of the body are permitted. What should not be seen should also not be touched. Hijab has great social, religious and political significance. It forces society to look at a woman as an intelligence and competent member and not a beautiful body to be admired. It asserts Islamic identity in the face of European cultural and political invasion of the Muslim world. It saves waste of money on imported cosmetics and dress fashions.

7.1.3 ENTERTAINMENT, tarfiih/tarwiih
The Law forbids immoral and obscene poetry, singing, dancing, and art. Dramatic expositions that are moral and do not violate any provisions of the Law are permitted. Any entertainment that involves ikhtilaat is forbidden. Making pictures and sculptures without necessity is discouraged. Pariticipative sports for purposes of building body strength are encouraged. A spectator sport is discouraged. A sport is discouraged if it is associated with addiction, commercialization, gambling, and violence. All forms of gambling are forbidden.

The Qur’an describes social failure as ‘ajz, wahn, dhull, and kasal. Failure may be physical, psychological, or social but all are interrelated. Failure manifests as neglect of Allah’s duties, social incompetence, lack of seriousness, kufr, misguidance, transgression, temptation, maghram & ma'atham, hamm & ghamm, jahd al bala & dark al shaqaa, miserliness, distress and sorrow, helplessness, laziness, cowardice, indebtedness, begging from others, poverty, being overcome by others, vain talk, extravagance, questions on disputed issues, and being hasty. The ultimate form of failure is loss of self-control and ending up being under the control of passions and becoming an addict to a habit or a sin. The causes of failure are: forgetting Allah and neglecting His commands, diseases of the heart, and peer pressure. Social failure is is a result of wrong choices of what life-style to follow.

Non-coital adultery is a type of minor zina committed by the eye, the ear, the tongue, the mouth, the limbs, and the hands. These organs are involved in antecedents to the actual crime of illegal sexual intercourse. The Qur'an severely condemned approaching zina. Antecedents of zina are haram because what leads to haram is also haram. Preventive measures of zina are education, tarbiyyah, early marriage, and following the Law. Zina and its antecedents are avoided by modesty in dress; prohibition of ikhtilaat and khalwat, discouraging looking at the opposite sex with desire, privacy of the home, and huduud as a final deterrent. False accusation of zina, qadhf seems common and thus easier to commit. Pornography is conducive to zina. Social disapproval of zina by the family and the community is more effective than legal deterrents. Ghiira is a strong motivation to make sure that spouses and relatives do not approach zina.

The antecedents of zina are trans-sexual dressing and behaviour, takhannuth/ stirjaal, free mixing of the 2 genders, ikhtilat; seclusion, khalwat; lustful the gaze; and indecent exposure, tabarruj. These either singly or in combination create an atmosphere conducive to committing zina.

7.2.3 FORNICATION, zina
Zina as a result of consensual understanding involving married or unmarried persons is severely prohibited. It may take the form of prostitution involving exchange of sexual favors in return for monetary or other benefits is prohibited. Forcing women into prostitution is forbidden. Earnings from prostitution are illegal. Adverse effects of zina are sexually transmitted diseases, out of wedlock births and illegitimate children who live in physical and emotional deprivation, family break-down, and high rates of divorce.

Anal intercourse, liwaat, male and male or male and female, is severely prohibited and is punishable by death. Masturbation, istimnaan, is sexual self-stimulation by both males and females. It is makruuh but allowed if it prevents commission of the bigger crime of zina. The Law prohibits copulation with animals or use of sexual objects and fetishes. The death penalty is prescribed for a male who commits rape, istikraah. A woman forced into illegal coitus is not punished. The death penalty is prescribed for incest, ityaan al mahram.

The law prohibits abnormal marital arrangements that lead to illegal sexual intercourse. These include temporary marriage, mut’at; marriage with intention to divorce; nikaah al shighaar (males exchange female relatives in marriage without paying mahr), and legally invalid marriage, nikaah baatil.

Addiction can be to alcohol, tobacco, or psycho-active substances. It may also be addiction to habits, passions, and sins such as sex, sports, fame, food, or gambling. Other forms of addiction are to power, respect, and money.

Drug dependence is of two types: physical dependence and psychological dependence. Addiction is inability to control use of a drug or enslavement to a habit (good or bad) through loss of self-control. Some forms of addiction are innately bad such as addiction to nicotine, addiction to drugs (alcohol, opiates, sedatives, marihuana, amphetamine, cocaine, caffeine), addiction to gambling, and addiction to lahw. Some forms of addiction start as habits and practices that are good innately but become bad due to excesses. This includes  sports and halaal food. The addiction process goes through various stages. It starts as a habit that becomes psychological dependence. It finally ends up as physiological dependence. Addiction has severe consequences. Addiction to intoxicants is prohibited because it nullifies the purpose of preserving intellect.  It leads to poor health, psychiatric complications, crime, and violation of diin.

Khamr is defined in the Law as any substance that causes intoxication. Alcohol, tobacco, and other psychoactive drugs are not food but are khamr because they change or impair the mind. With an impaired mind and loss of control a human becomes an animal. Any thing that causes clouding of the mind is called khamr. Every intoxicant is prohibited. What intoxicates in large amounts is haram in small amounts. The term alcohol refers to one type of khamr. Khamr is the key to sins and evils. Taking khamr is likened to worshipping idols. The recompense of a drinker of khamr is jahannam. Iman temporarily disappears from a person at the moment of taking khamr. The salat of a user of khamr is not accepted. Khamr is not a cure but is a disease. Wide-spread drinking khamr is an indicator of the coming of the Last Day. Khamr has harms and benefits. The harms are predominant. The benefits are few and temporary. The harm of khamr lies in its effects on health and its associated sins. Prohibition of khamr was gradual being carried out in 3 stages. Some people call khamr by another name in order to make it halaal. The Law has several measures to control addiction to khamr. Manufacture, sale, and distribution of khamr are prohibited. Raw materials for making khamr should not be sold to a potential manufacturer.

Nicotine addiction is a type of drug addiction. Addiction to narcotics & sedatives starts as normal pharmalogical use of the drugs and progresses to harmful addiction. Illicit drugs with no pharmacological benefit are addictive

The root cause of addiction is following passions, ittiba’u al hawa. Measures should be taken to stop antecedents to addiction on the basis that what to to haram is haram. While preventing addiction we should not forget to treat the victims of addiction. Internal measures of addiction control are strengthening iman, taqwa, ibadat, and dihkr. External measures of addiction control include education, tarbiyat, good use of spare time, and good company. Rehabilitation of addicts starts with telling them to repent. If they refuse they should be isolated socially. Cognitive therapy is used to sure the addict understands the impact of addiction on health, wealth, and family life.

The Qur’an refers to poverty as faqr, masknat, and ‘imlaaq. Shaitan uses human fear of poverty to frighten and control people. Poverty can be a form of punishment. Poverty has its own merit. The majority of the inhabitants of jannat will be the poor. The main causes of poverty are family breakdown, non-payment of zakat, social injustice, and physical disasters.

Poverty is associated with malnutrition and ill-health. It destroys human dignity and self-worth replacing them with despair and loss of hope. Poverty undermines self-confidence and assertiveness making it difficult to resist temptation to sin and crime. People may resort to crime to meet basic human needs. Social instability results when the deprived fight the well to do.

7.4.3 POVERTY MITIGATION by SOCIAL WELFARE, takaful ijtimae:
The Qur’an has taught many ways of mitigating or eradicating poverty. The target groups for poverty programs are the weak and needy: the maskiin, the faqiir, orphans, widows, and the elderly. Their needs are food, shelter, clothing, medical care, and education. The main sources of resources are zakat al mal, zakat al fitr, and sadaqat al tatawu’u, kaffarat, adhahi, ‘aqiiqah, and waqf. The institutions involved in social welfare are the extended family, waqf institutions, the government, and social insurance.

Equitable distribution of the world resources will eliminate much of the poverty existing at the moment. However concerted international action is not possible. The primary role of the government is to ensure just economic distribution, employment opportunities, infra-structure, and a non-riba economy. Conditions of peace and stability will enable the community build safety nets for the most vulnerable citizens. Stability and continuity of the nuclear family protects children from poverty. Open migration will enable people to move from places with no economic opportunities to others where they can help themselves.

7.4.5 MISUSE OF WEALTH, taraf
Taraf, waste of food, and a hedonistic lifestyle waste resources that could have been used to help the poor.

Taking one’s life is a major sin that takes a person to hell and away from jannat. Salat al janazat is not offered for a suicide victim. Any form of harm to others is forbidden. This may be spilling blood or other forms of physical harm such as beating. Killing a human without valid reason is forbidden. The Qur’an condemned the killing of prophets by the Jews. Homicide is a major sin being among the 7 worst sins. The reward of deliberate killing of a believer is hell. Genocide is wholesale killing of people because of race or other distinguishing characteristic for example the genocide of Banu Israil in Egypt. Human torture is common. Opponents or those with different ideas are often victims of torture. Even criminals may be tortured beyond the the legal punishment. The Qur’an condemned the killing of believers at the trenches. Humans throughout their history have displayed levels of purposeless cruelty to one another that is not found among animals. The weak in the society have often been victims of this cruelty.

We learn from books of siirat about the poor status of women on pre-Islamic Arabia. This included denial of the right to life for the women in the pre-Islamic period, denial of the good things of life from the woman, despise of the woman in the pre-Islamic period, considering a woman as a bad omen, inheriting the woman like a piece of property, and sadness at the birth of a girl. The fate of the Quraishi women was worse than that of Ansari women. The woman was also mistreated in pharaonin Egypt. The low and despised position of women exposed them to violence at home and outside the home. Islam protected the rights of the woman. It raised the woman’s status. It acknowledged the physical weakness of mothers necessitating special protection for them. Killing the woman was forbidden. Good treatment of women was ordained. Making fun of women was prohibited. Abuse of women can be physical, psychological, sexual, or emotional. Domestic violence is defined as physical violence, coercion, threats, intimidation, isolation, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, economic abuse. Victims of domestic violence can get protection. Violation of the protection order is a crime.

Any action that kills or causes harm of any kind to the fetus in utero is forbidden by the Law. Ancient and modern societies have practiced infanticide for various reasons. The pre-Islamic Arabs killed their children for fear of poverty. The Pharaohs killed male infants among the children of Israel. Islam ordained good treatment of girls. Justice in giving among children was ordained such that some do not feel less loved and desired. Children are victims of neglect, poor care, beating and torture. Various forms of child sexual abuse are practised: child prostitution, under-age marriages etc. Child abuse: The state is a protector of children and it can intervene to provide care if parents neglect their duty. Obligatory vaccination is in the public interest and overrides individual freedoms and choice. Children are often victims of abuse, physical and psychological.. The battered child syndrome is one of the manifestations of child abuse. The physician is liable for neglecting to report child abuse.

Old age is a period of physical weakness. Islam ordained respecting the rights of the elderly. Good treatment of parents is one of the best acts infront of Allah and has special rewards. If every offspring treated the parents well, there would be no elderly mistreated in the world. Cursing or mistreating parents is one of the major sins and is accompanied by severe punishment. It is rare for a person to curse their own parents; they may however curse parents of others who retaliate by cursing their patents. Allah answers the prayer, dua, of a parent against a child. Geriatric patients or elders can be mistreated by abuse, neglect, or exploitation either at home or in institutions. Elders because of dementia cannot give consent for research and a proxy has to be used. Brain injured patient can be abused.

Fire should not be left alight when sleeping. Illegal wars cause a lot of death and suffering. Even in legal wars, no harm is done to non-combatants. Armed robbery causes harm. Some sports are very aggressive physically for example boxing and wrestling. Some sports are very risky like climbing, gliding, and skiing. Occupations may expose workers to harmful situations. Litigation in the occupational setting may arise due to failure to enforce OSHA standards, failure to keep the workers informed, access to employee records, discrimination in the work-place (gender, pregnancy, fetal protection), workers’ compensation, and legal liability of occupational exposure.


8.1 DAWA
8.1.1 Nature of Islamic Dawa
8.1.2 The Caller
8.1.3 The Called
8.1.4 Strategies and Methods
8.1.5 Planning, Execution, and Evaluation

8.2.1 Obligation
8.2.2. Consequences of Amre and Nahy
8.2.3 Halal and Haram
8.2.4 Methodology of Amre and Nahy
8.2.5 Innovations

8.3 SOCIAL CHANGE, taghyiir ijtima’i
8.3.1 The Original Position is Success
8.3.2 Change is for the Worse
8.3.3 Laws of Social Change, Sunnat Al Taghyiir
8.3.4 Causes of Adverse Social Change
8.3.5 Concept of Reform, Islaah

8.4.1 Ulama Associations
8.4.2 Medical Associations
8.4.3 Student Associations
8.4.4 Labor and Professional Unions

8.5.1 Social Welfare Organizations
8.5.2 Disaster Relief Organizations

Dawa is conveying the message of Islam to Muslims and non-Muslims. It is a communication process involving the caller, the called, the message, and behavioural change. Tauhid is the basis for all dawa efforts. The Qur’an is the main tool of dawa. Dawa indicates dynamism of the community because Islam is a missionary religion. Dawa is a collective obligation, fardh kifayat, however individual efforts even if small are encouraged. Dawa must be undertaken at all places and times. The first level of dawa is calling to accept the creed accomplished by pronouncing the kalima. The second level is calling upon individuals and families to practice and live Islam. The third level is calling upon the whole society to be organized according to the teachings of Islam. Dawa has impact on the caller, the called, and the society at large.

The caller gets the reward for calling people to guidance. The prophet Muhammad is the best model of a caller. His message is universal and clear. His behavior, patience, humility, and mercy were effective. He faced problems. The caller must have the following personality characteristics: patience, wisdom, insight, iman, ‘Ilm, kindness, consideration, firmness, commitment, good personal relations, generosity, practicality, flexibility, humility, zuhd, qana'a, and taqwa. The most important attribute is commitment, ikhlaas. The following characteristics make a caller more persuasive: being perceived as honest, personal power, attractiveness, likableness, similarity to the called, being of the same gender as the called, expertise, and credibility. A caller need not be perfect to start dawa. Dawa makes him better because of the challenge is that you have to live up to expectations of a celler. All dawa workers whether full-time of part-time must be receive training tailored to the local situation.

Everybody is targeted, Muslims and non-Muslims, all races and nationalities, all social classes, and all parts of the world. Dawa to Muslims involves calling them to practice Islam. Dawa to non-Muslims exposes the truth and positives of Islam while correcting the disinformation by the enemies. It aims at returning them to the natural state of human beings, which is Islam. Dawa to the general society involves propagating to the general public with the aim of making them aware or conscious of the presence of Islam. Dawa programs could target special populations such as women, youths, patients in hospitals, prisoners, students, laborers, and workers. They could also target special social classes such as artists and stars, aristocrats, middle class, professionals, and ordinary people. The marginalised and rejected members or classes of society are a special target group for dawa because they are so susceptible. These include: criminals in prisons, drug addicts, the socially deprived, etc. They are looking for an alternative that will take them out of their sad situation.

Aggressive and pro-active strategies are better than defensive and reactive ones. Success depends on phasing, gradualism, tarbiyah, and influence by example. Material incentives should not be used to convince but to attract people to listen to the message. Dawa requires a wise, polite, non-antagonist, non-critical approach presentation of the Islamic alternative because truth automatically displaces falsehood. Dawa may be by direct or indirect, personal or impersonal. Personal contact is the most effective approach. The message should be individualized and customized. It should be simple and direct.

The main elements that a dawa plan covers are: the caller, the called, the time dimension, resources (money, material), and program control. Dawa requires funding but cannot be professionalized. Volunteers do the legwork and have motivation and enthusiasm. Coordination eliminates unnecessary duplication and competition. Individual initiative and many organizations are encouraged. The main objective is unity of purpose and not unity of organization. Program evaluation is used to improve effectiveness. Process evaluation is easy. Outcome evaluation is difficult because results of dawa are long-term and are not quantifiable. Success depends on Allah’s will and not only the efforts of the caller. Opposition should never provoke violent reactions. Dawa is a peaceful process that targets the hearts of men and not their bodies.

Amr and nahy are necessary for the maintenance of morality and social order. Amr and nahy are communal obligations. The prophet said that whoever sees an evil should change it by the hand, it he cannot by the tongue if he cannot by the heart and that is the weakest of iman. Amre and nahy by the hand and the tongue are fardh kifaayat. Amre and nahy by the heart is fardh ‘ain. Amr and nahy have 2 components, promotive and inhibitive, that must be balanced. The promotive component is enjoining the good and the inhibitive component is forbidding the bad. The good, al ma'aruf, must be in actions, in speech, and in fulfilling obligations. Dawa and advice, nasiihat, are a form of amr and nahy.

Amr and nahy protect society from destruction due to actions of evil doers. There is a great reward for those who guide to the good. The ummat’s superiority based on undertaking amr and nahy. Neglecting amr and nahy is a reason for punishment. Banu israil were cursed for abandoning amre and nahy. There is no imam for one who does not attempt amr and nahy. The prophet gave the example of those who neglect amr and nahy like passengers on a boat in which people sitting at the upper level neglected to stop those on the lower level from making a hole in the boat which eventually caused the boat to capsize and drown everybody

8.2.3 HALAL and HARAM
The person must know what is halal and what haram is. Halal is done while haram is avoided. Halal and haram are clear but between them are mutashabihaat. The general guideline about shubuhaat is to leave alone what causes doubt and do only what has no doubt in it keeping away from grey areas. People unfortunately use the gray area as an excuse to permit the forbidden. Allah wants that people make use of relaxations that He gave them as much as He hates commission of ma’asiyat. A person is advised to leave what causes him doubt and go for certainty. Allah does not oblige a human beyond capacity. Once a community neglects amr and nahy there is social disorder. Scales and values are reversed. The good may be forbidden. It is forbidden to permit the forbidden as it is equally forbidden to prohibit the permitted.

Any one can undertake amr & nahy on the specific subject that they know well. The person need not morally perfect; what is needed is that he is trying to get better. Amr and nahy is fard kifayah. Those who undertake it must be adults, believers, and must have the ability needed for the task. They must have the attributes of knowledge, taqwa, and good behavior/character. There are several targets of amr and nahy. Some know the truth but reject it out of jealousy like the Yahuud. Some know the truth and turn away from it for material reasons like the wealthy. Some do not know the truth because of ignorance and may even be enemies of the truth. Nahy is about specific bad actions that are forbidden by shariat, that exist now, that are obvious, that are known without ijtihad, and any blameworthy, munkar, or forbidden, haram, act. Amr & nahy are undertaken at all times of day and night. In some special circumstance, it may be better to wait for a more appropriate time to make sure that the target of amr and nahy will appreciate the message better. Amr and nahy are undertaken in any place. The method of amr and nahy proceeds by knowing the munkar, explaining that it is wrong, and nahy verbally by giving advice. If there is no response harsh condemnation is undertaken. If there is no change physical means of removing the evil are undertaken. Courage is needed. There should be no fear in saying the truth. There must be consistency between word and deed. A person cannot order good and perform evil. Balance is needed between amr and nahy. Amr and nahy must be realistic being fulfilled to the extent of ability. The channels of communication used in amr and nahy are speech, lectures, books, preaching, nasiihat, and pamphlets. Kindness and sympathy are needed.

In matters of aqidat and ibadat there can be nothing new because all was prescribed in the book and nothing was left out. Even apparently innocent innovations in matters of aqidat are dangerous because they divert attention from the spirit of true ibadat and become just rituals.

UNIT 8.3: SOCIAL CHANGE, taghyiir ijtima’i
The original default position is success and happiness. Transgressions lead to fall and destruction. If communities believe and have taqwa they get bounties from Allah. Bounties are a test for humans (2:49 & 89:15). Bounties are increased if humans are grateful to Allah (4:147 & 14:8). Few humans are grateful (2:243 & 67:23). Humans give the lie to Allah’s bounties (55:13). Iman is necessary for happiness on earth (13:28).

The Qur’an has talked about change from good to worse as destruction of people (6:6 & 77:16), communities (6:42 & 50:36) as punishments for transgression (7:159 & 35:42).

8.3.3. LAWS OF SOCIAL CHANGE, sunnat al taghyiir
The Qur’an has described that there are laws of social change, sunnat al llaahi fi al taghyiir (6:89 & 47:38). The same laws applied to all past communities (3:137 & 48:23). Allah does not change the original position of a community unless and until they themselves do evils that necessitate that change (8:53 & 13:11). Every community has a fixed span of time (7:34 & 23:43). Communities rise and fall and are replaced by others (6:133 & 76:28).

Social change leading to decay is due to ruling with laws not from Allah, hukm bi ghayr ma anzala al llaah (2:188 & 24:48), following the false, tab’iyat madhmuumat (2:102 & 71:21), luxuries, taraf (11:116 & 43:23), disbelief, kufr (6:25-26 & 19:74), giving the lie to the truth, takdhiib al haqq (8:54 & 69:4-6), transgression, dhulm (3:117 & 53:50-52), crime, ijraam (7:83-84 & 44:37), the actions of the ignorant, sufaha (7:155), following desires, ittiba’u al hawaa (20:16), sins, dhunuub (6:6, 8:54, & 17:17), fisq (17:16 & .46:25), dhann al suu (41:23), wasteful extravagance, israaf (20:127-128, 21:9), taraf (17:16), batr (28:58), and batsh (43:8, 50:36).

8.3.5 CONCEPT OF REFORM, islaah
The Qur’an has mentioned reform, islaah (2:160 & 47:5). It is essentially the honorable, taba’iyat mahmuudat (2:38 & 57:27). The believers will eventually be victorious, nasr al muminuun (2:194-195 & 63:8). The earth will be inherited by the righteous, wirathat al ardh li al saalihiin (7:100 & 44:28).

Poverty is defined in absolute and relative terms and its level varies from place to place. Individual poverty is due to lack of saleable skills, lack of knowledge, lack of opportunities, and misfortunes due to failed economy or discrimination. The blind, the aged, the mentally and the physically handicapped are incapable of working. Eradication of poverty can be alleviative or curative. The alleviation is providing assistance. Cure is by job creation, job training/apprenticeship, education, job search/match, and assuring a minimum wage. Poverty is prevented by compulsory saving, strengthening the family, crisis intervention, ensuring employment, job training, and inculcating a work ethic. Mutual help in society, takaful al ijtimae, is by charity and zakat al maal. Charity should be temporary while poverty curative measures are undertaken. Social network are needed to guarantee basic necessities to all people. The social safety net includes the extended family, community organizations, and the government. Voluntary work assists the elderly, the handicapped, and the mentally ill. The social welfare institutions involved in social work are: hospitals and clinics, schools, orphanages, homes for the elderly and the handicapped. The role of government in social welfare should be limited to regulation, monitoring, or funding. Social welfare work should be in the hands of private societal organizations. Several social interventions can eradicate poverty such as nasiihat for sinners and negligent parents, lifestyle changes, control of drug abuse, and supporting the family to survive.

A crisis or a disaster situation is said to exist when the magnitude of the problem or its speed of evolution and progression overwhelm the usual coping mechanisms. Characteristics of a disaster are immediate danger to life, unstable and unpredictable situation, events happening quickly, emotions high, and no routine or standard responses. Man-made disasters are those in which humans are involved directly in the causation such as: war/violence, economic disruption, political instability, and social crisis. Non man-made disasters are disasters that happen without any direct involvement of humans such as epidemic disease, drought, crop failure, famine, hurricanes, typhoons, flooding, and earthquakes. Managing a disaster requires a full assessment of its human, geographical, social / psychological, financial / resources, and technological dimensions Disasters can be anticipated and prevented. The aim of crisis management is to reverse the situation back to normal or limit the damage done. Crisis management requires speed in information gathering, deciding, and implementing. Because of the rapid change in status quo, decisions must be updated continuously. Systematic disaster management involves assessing the situation, assessing potential development, assessing side effects, determining who can be involved, stopping actions that make the situation worse, deciding the strategy and alternative strategies, continuous review and assessment, and avoiding panicking. The following processes should go on continuously during disaster management: assessing, planning, implementing, and evaluation. Tracking progress of a crisis must be timely and accurate. Prioritizing and decision-making are undertaken under pressure of time. Decisions are made on less that full information more often than in normal situations. Intuition based on previous experience plays a more prominent role. Routines are very good for dealing with crises. There must be a recognized leader. Speed of response is very important in a rapidly developing crisis situation. Quick intervention at the right time can limit the damage. A few crises can become chronic problems if the causative agent continues operating unchecked or if the primary cause leads to secondary crises that become chronic and are not checked. Most crises are self-limiting and are time-limited. Speed of response is very important to limit the damage. Late intervention serves no purpose because the damage is already done and the crisis may be over. In an emergency you may not have the luxury of using the ideal approach. Speed is important and we may have to use less that ideal quick and dirty solutions. As far as possible you must avoid creating future problems in our haste to resolve a current crisis. Charismatic leaders usually emerge at times of crisis. They are usually very effective in crisis management. Each disaster is unique. There are no fixed rules that can cover management of all disasters. There are however some general principles. Many crises may have to be waited out. Time is the ultimate solution. Epidemics of infectious diseases are self-limiting in time if spread of the contagion can be controlled. Preventing movement into and out of the stricken region is a first preliminary measure. Spread of the infection to the healthy can be prevented by appropriate measures of vaccination and other precautions against infection. Interventions in a crisis situation are always associated with some risk. The intervention may inadvertently cause more damage. It may not achieve its goal or it may close off other more viable options. Having a fallback plan minimizes the risk.


Writings of Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr

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