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Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity
Riyadh, KSA


Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.
MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)
Telephone:+966 5 48867916

24th February 2010TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Conceptual Basis For Innovative Leadership And Management Skill Training Programs (STP)                                     

2. Understanding Strategy

3. Strategy Planning

4. Strategic Moves

5. Strategy Implementation

6. Understanding Planning

7. Action/Tactical Planning

8. Action Planning: The Hijra and Year 1 at Madina

9. Project Implementation

Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

There is an intellectual crisis underlying frustrations in management in Muslim countries despite exposure to advanced and efficient European and American management systems. The intellectual crisis among the Muslim intelligentsia arises from the duality or dichotomy in their education. There is a dichotomy in the education system: traditional vs. European. There are competing and contradictory world-views.

European management theory and practice conform to the European world view but are not 100% congruent with the world view of the non-Europeans. This incoherence explains why the best European management techniques transplanted to the third world do not produce the same results as in Europe. Overcoming this problem will require an epistemological reform in which selected modern management theories and techniques will have to be expressed within the world view of the non-European managers. Japan, Korea, and China have demonstrated success based on integrating their local values and historical experience in systems imported from Europe.

The performance gap potential and actual performance due deficiency of practical leadership and management skills can be covered by on the job training. Training is an investment in people, the most valuable organizational resource, and has a very high future pay-off in terms of better performance, productivity, and growth. Rapid advances in technology make skills obsolete and necessitate continuous retraining to maintain effectiveness. Training is needed for all skills. The mission of STP is to close the performance gap.  The philosophy of STP is training trainers, teaching practical skills, and repetitive continuous training to ensure continuing improvement in performance.

STP teaches managements skills based on empirical experience. The skills are taught in an integrated way following the tauhidi paradigm. An interactive approach allows active participation of trainees in the training process. Training aids enhance the quality of training but cannot be a substitute for good planning and presentation of the training material. Reading material in the form of textbooks and selected articles is given to the participants. Exercises that test comprehension or that give the participant an opportunity to internalize the concepts taught are used. Case-studies from Muslim history and contemporary experience are used to discuss and internalize the leadership and management skills presented.

STP starts with training needs and training objectives. Design of STP covers the trainer, the trainees, the course material, lesson plans, methods of training, delivery of training (skills & techniques), questions, and discussions. Matching trainers to trainees ensures successful interaction. Trainers must understand the trainees. A prepared and written lesson plan must be followed but flexibility is required when the actual circumstances are different from the anticipation. The pace should be appropriate for the trainees.

The following methods of training are used: one-to-one, mentoring, lectures, discussion groups, panel discussion, debates, dialog, brain storming, demonstration, in-basket exercises, case studies, role playing, simulation, assignment of projects, entertainment/games, self-directed learning, personal development plan, interactive video, computer-based/progammed learning, and multimedia.

Training opportunities/occasions are workshops, conferences, seminars, and camps. A presentation consists of 3 main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Questions and discussions serve the purposes of clarification and feed-back. A-V aids help understanding and retention while maintaining trainee interest. The trainer should be speaking and interacting with the trainees for about 75% of the time. A-Vs are brought in at specific times to illustrate a point. It is a mistake to base the whole presentation on a set of A-Vs so that the trainer becomes a robot.
Training needs must be assessed, prioritized, and ranked. The target group is determined. Participants are then using the criteria of leadership potential, teachability, teaching ability, and diffussion of ideas.  The training plan document consists of trainee profiles, objectives of the training, contents of the training program, the training method, the trainers, the site of training, the budget, program execution, and program evaluation. A check is made on the physical facilities before implementation: space, lighting, access to board, access to PA equipment, and comfortable seating.

The evaluation of short and long term impacts of STP must be planned at the same time as the training program. Both process and outcome evaluation (behavioral change and impact on work performance) are carried out. The purposes of evaluation are identifying weaknesses for better future planning, reassuring and motivating workers, reassuring supporters and stake-holders, assessing the impact of training on organizational performance, and assessing the impact of training on individual performance. Evaluation is indertaken by the trainer, the trainees, or outside experts. The following are evaluated: training session, speaker, trainees, program, and training material. The evaluation criteria must be realistic, relevant, and quantifiable. The evaluation can be immediate, intermediate or long-term. Data for evaluation can be collected by questionnaire, observation, interviews, surveys, etc. The evaluation reports should consist of the following sections: background, research questions, methodology, findings, conclusions / recommendations, and attachments

7.1 LEADERSHIP SKILLS, mahaaraat al qiyadat
·        Leadership: Basic Characteristics, sifaat al qiyadat
·        Attributes and functions of leaders, sifaat wa masuliyaat al qaid
·        Disease of Leaders and Followers, amraadh al qiyaadat
·        Communication in leadership, fan al ittisaal fi al qiyaadat
·        Negotiation in leadership, fan al hiwaar fi al qiyadat

·        The Prophet
·        Righteous Khulafa
·        Social Role Models
·        Scholars and Reformers

8.1 MANAGEMENT SKILLS, mahaaraat al qiyaadat
·        Principles and Concepts of Management,
·        Strategy, al istratiijiyat
·        Planning and implementation, takhtiit wa tanfiidh al masharii’e
·        Control and Evaluation, al muraaqabat wa al taqwiim
·        Decision-making and problem-solving, al qaraaraat wa al mashaakil

·        Time Management, idaarat al waqt
·        Financial Management, idaaral maal
·        Information Management, idaarat al ma’alumat   
·        Organizational Management, idaarat al munadhamat
·        Personnel Management, idaarat al bashar

Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

·        This session defines and discusses the basic concepts of strategy and planning.

·        Definition of strategy
·        Strategic planning
·        Strategic thinking
·        Strategic management
·        Strategy in seerah and contemporary work
·        Strategy: change, stability and growth


·        Allah knows ghaib; humans can not know the future; they only guess
·        Allah is the best planner
·        Trust in Allah: Prophet and Abubakr in the cave
·        Vision of conquest of Makka, Byzantine, Persia, Yaman, Syria, Iraq, and the peninsula
·        Vision of paradise as success and hell as failure
·        Niyyat (intention)
·        Sincerity of action


·        Vision
·        Forecasting
·        Scenario Casting


Definition of strategy: Strategy is a rational approach to management of life's uncertainties. It involves assessment of the internal and external environments, forecasting the future, thinking forwards and reasoning backwards, and preparing for various hypothetical scenarios. Strategic behavior is a vital necessity for living and succeeding in a complex environment in which your decisions and actions have an impact on others and are also influenced by what else is going on around you. Strategic concepts are used in leadership thinking, analysis, planning, management, and negotiations. Organizations that only want to react to events and have no strategies, are waiting for their death. It is a major mistake for leaders to be so absorbed in day-to-day operations that strategic planning is neglected.

Strategic planning: Strategic planning is a very powerful tools for leaders and managers. Strategic planning is establishing strategic objectives and formulating plans to accomplish them.  Strategic plans answer three questions: where are we now? where do we want to be? how do we get there? Strategic planning involves thinking forward and reasoning backwards, preparing for all possibilities. You have to develop contingency strategies to be implemented if a chosen plan does not work as envisioned. Strategic planning has many benefits. You are not completely surprised by events. You are pro-active and not reactive. You will not be easily provoked into wrong responses. You can take pre-emptive moves ahead of the competition. Strategic planning is difficult because it essentially involves achieving and maintaining objectives in a changing and unpredictable environment. It requires considerable intellectual effort and creativity.

Strategic thinking: Strategic thinking are intellectual processes that are a background to strategy formulation, planning, and management. Strategic thinking enables you to see through difficult and complex situations and make the right decisions. A strategic thinker prepares for and exploits unpredictability and surprises. He anticipates, sees through, and prepares for a rival's strategic move. His frame of mind is prepared opportunism being ready to exploit opportunities that arise unexpectedly.

Strategic management: Strategic plans call for strategic management. Strategic management is managing pursuit of organizational mission while managing relation of the organization to the environment. It is characterized by always being ready to deal with sudden changes in the environment. Strategic management in a highly uncertain rapidly changing environment can be likened to shooting at a moving target when riding on a galloping horse.

Strategy in seerah and contemporary work: Careful study of the seerah reveals effective strategic thinking and planning at all stages of the forward march of the Islamic mission. Although the environment and technology have changed, human nature has remained basically the same. Thus many human behaviors today whether strategic or not have their parallels in the seerah. You can learn from the lessons of the past and build on them to develop your strategic skills for the modern era. Some of the major crises that contemporary organizations and movements went through could have been prevented if the leadership employed strategic thinking and planning skills. There is a need to develop strategic planning and management skills among the leaders and managers of today to be able to face the multi-faceted challenges of today. In many cases they are dealing with or opposing organizations that operate strategically and they have no chance if they do not have comparable or better skills.

Strategy: change, stability and growth: Strategic plans must be flexible enough to be able to adapt to rapid environmental changes. The organization must have an in-built capacity for change if it is to succeed. Strategy formulation requires a determination of whether the organization wants growth or stability. The plans are different for each scenario. Strategies that emphasize stability are less innovative and are based on premises and facts that are not likely to vary a lot. Strategies of growth anticipate a lot of change and with it the uncertainty and risks that are inevitable. Risk management is a very important aspect of such strategies

Allah knows ghaib; humans can not know the future; they only guess: “Say: None in the heavens or on earth, except Allah, knows what is hidden Nor can they perceive when they shall be raised up ( for Judgement ).Qur'an 27: 65 …. "Narrated Ibn Umar: Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said, " Keys of the unseen ( knowledge ) are five which nobody knows but Allah: nobody knows what will happen tomorrow; nobody knows what is in the womb; nobody knows what he will gain tomorrow; nobody knows at what place he will die; and nobody knows when it will rain" Bukhari 2:82

Allah is the best planner: And (the unbelievers) plotted and planned and Allah too planned, and the best of planners is Allah. Qur'an 3:54  …. “Remember how the unbelievers plotted against you, to keep you in bonds or slay you, or get you out (of your home) they plot and plan and Allah too plan but the best of planners is Allah. Qur'an 8:30

Trust in Allah: Prophet and Abubakr in the cave: ‘If you help not ( your Leader ) (It is no matter ): for Allah did indeed help him, when the Unbelievers drove him out: he had no more than one companion: The two were in the cave, and he said to his companion, "Have no fear for Allah is with us" then Allah sent down His peace upon him, and strengthened him with forces which you saw not, and humbled to the depths the word of the Unbelievers. But the word of Allah is Exalted to the heights: for Allah is Exalted in might, Wise.  Qur'an 9:40 …"Narrated Abubakr: I was in the company of the Prophet (may peace be upon him) in the cave, and on seeing the traces of the pagans, I said, " O Allah's Apostle! If one of them (pagans) should lift up his foot, he will see us." He said, " What do you think of two, the third of whom is Allah". Bukhari 6:148, Hadith #185

Vision of conquest of Makka, Byzantine, Persia, Yaman, Syria, Iraq, and the peninsula: Truly did Allah fulfill the vision for His Messenger: You shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, hair cut short, and without fear. For He knew what you knew not, and He granted, besides this, a speedy victory. Qur'an 48:27 …. "Narrated Jabir bin Samura: The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) said, " If Caesar is ruined, there will be no Caesar after him; and if Khosrau is ruined, there will be no Khosrau after him; and, by Him in whose hand my soul is, surely you will spend their treasures in Allah's cause" Bukhari 8:408, Hadith #625…"Narrated Sufyan bin Abu Zuhair: I heard Allah's Messenger ( may peace be upon him ) saying " Yemen will be conquered and some people will migrate  (from Medina) and will urge their families, and those who will obey them to migrate (to Yemen) although Medina will be better for them; If they but knew. Shaam will also be conquered and some people will migrate (from Medina) and will urge their families and those who will obey them, to migrate (to Sham) although Medina will be better for them, if they but knew. Iraq will be conquered and some people will migrate (from Medina ) and will urge their families and those who will obey them to migrate (to Iraq) although Medina will be better for them, if they but knew". Bukhari 3:56-57, Hadith # 99 … "Narrated Khabab bin Al Art: We complained to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) about our state while he was leaning against his sheet cloak in the shade of the Kaba. We said, " Will you ask Allah to help us? Will you invoke Allah for us?" He said, "Among those who were before you a (believer) used to be seized and, a pit used to be dug for him and then he used to be placed in it. Then a saw used to be brought and put on his head which would be split into two halves. His flesh might be combed with iron combs and removed from his bones, yet, all that did not cause him to revert from his religion by Allah! This religion (Islam) will be completed (and triumph) till a rider (traveler) goes from Sana ( the capital of Yemen ) to Hadramout fearing nobody except Allah and the wolf lest it should trouble his sheep, but you are impatient" Bukhari 9: 62, Hadith #76

Vision of paradise as success and hell as failure: "Narrated Abu Huraira: the Prophet (may peace be upon him) said, " Allah said, " I have prepared for My righteous slaves (such excellent things) as no eye has ever seen, nor an ear has ever heard nor a human heart can ever think of". Bukhari 9:435-436, hadith # 589 …."Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) led us in prayer and then went up to the pulpit and beckoned with both hands towards the qibla of the mosque and then said, " When I started leading you in prayer, I saw the display of Paradise and Hell on the wall of the mosque (facing the Qibla) I never saw good and bad as I have seen today." He repeated the last statement thrice". Bukhari 1: 400, hadith # 716

Niyyat (intention): "Umar b Al Khattab reported the Apostle of Allah ( may peace be upon him ) as saying: Actions are to be judged only by intentions, and a man will have only what he intended. When one's emigration is to Allah and His Apostle, his emigration is to Allah and His Apostle; but when his emigration is to a worldly end at which he aims or to a woman whom he marries, his emigration is to that for which he emigrated". Abu Daud 2:593-594, Chapter 727, Hadith # 2195 … "On the pulpit Umar bin Al-Khattab said: I heard Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) saying, " The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for" Bukhari 1:1, chapter 1, hadith #1
Sincerity of action: "It has been narrated on the authority of Sulaiman b. Yasar who said: People dispersed from around Abu Huraira, and Natil, who was from the Syrians, said to him: O Shaikh, relate (to us) a tradition you have heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said: Yes. I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: The first of men (whose case) will be decided on the Day of Judgment will be a man who died as a martyr. He shall be brought (before the Judgment Seat). Allah will make him recount His blessings (i.e. the blessings which He had bestowed upon him) and he will recount them (and admit having enjoyed them in his life). Then will Allah say: What did you do (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I fought for you until I died as a martyr. Allah will say: Your have told a lie. You fought that you might be called a " Brave warrior ". And you were called so. (Then) orders will be passed against him and he will be dragged with his face downward and cast into hell. Then will be brought forward a man who acquired knowledge and imparted it (to others) and recited the Qur'an. He will be brought and Allah will make him recount His blessings and he will recount them (and admit having enjoyed them in his lifetime). Then will Allah ask: What did you do (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I acquired knowledge and disseminated it and recited the Qur'an seeking you pleasure. Allah will say: You have told a lie. You acquired knowledge so that you might be called " a scholar " and you recited the Qur'an so that it might be said: " He is a qari and such has been said. Then orders will be passed against him and he shall be dragged with his face downward and cast into the Fire. Then will be brought a man whom Allah had made abundantly rich and had granted every kind of wealth. He will be brought and Allah will make him recount His blessings and he will recount them and (admit having enjoyed them in his lifetime). Allah will then ask: What have you done (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I spent money in every cause in which you wished that it should be spent. Allah will say: You are lying. You did (so) that it might be said about (you): " He is a generous fellow" and so it was said. Then will Allah pass orders and he will be dragged with his face downward and thrown into hell". Muslim 3: 1055, Chapter 746, Hadith # 4688


Think of your particular organization or any other organization that you know well and answer the questions. Make sure you mention the name of the organization and the nature of your involvement with it. Answer the following questions regarding your organization’s education programs.

(a) What is the organization's long-term vision?

(b) How was the vision formulated?

(c) How far has the vision been translated into mission, goals, and objectives

Think of your particular organization that you know well and answer the questions. Make sure you mention the name of the organization and the nature of your involvement with it. Answer the following questions about forecasting future trends in the education field.

(a) What is the present status?

(b) What are the expected trends in the next 5 years?

(c) What factors will affect these trends? Explain how each factor will impact the trends?

Think of your particular organization that you know well and answer the questions. Make sure you mention the name of the organization and the nature of your involvement with it. Answer the following questions about future educational scenarios.

        (a) Work out a possible scenarios for your organization’s educational efforts in 5 year's time if the external environment is supportive assuming that other factors are constant

(b) Work out a possible scenario for your organization’s educational efforts in 5 year's time if the external environment is neutral assuming other factors are constant

(c) Work out a possible scenario for your organization’s educational efforts in 5 year's time if the external environment is hostile assuming other factors to be constant.


Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

·        Conceptual basis for strategic planning
·        Practical strategic planning

·        Stages of the strategic planning process:
o   Clarifying organizational vision
o   Clarifying organizational mission
o   Clarifying organizational mandates
o   Stakeholder analysis (vested interests)
o   Situational/environmental analysis
o   Identifying issues considered strategic
o   Collecting information: internal and external environments
o   Future forecasting
o   Formulating alternative approaches/scenarios/contingencies
o   Formulating plan: strategic moves & action/tactical plans
o   Impact analysis

·        Other considerations
·        Uncertainty
·        Practicability
·        Contingency plans
·        Review and updating
·        Qualitative and quantitative
·        Impact
·        Levels of planning  

·        Internal and not external weaknesses destroy the ummah

·        Preparing a Mission statement
·        Mandates
·        Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
·        Strategic issues identification
·        Collecting information
·        Outlining a strategic plan for our local area


Stages of Planning: This session presents the sequential stages of formulating a strategic plan. Each stage is defined and its use is explained. Strategy formulation goes through the following steps: defining organizational vision and mission, clarifying externally-imposed mandates, analyzing stakeholders, analyzing the internal and external environments, identifying strategic issues, collecting information, making assumptions and forecasts, formulating general strategic approaches for various possible scenarios, choosing the most favored scenario and formulating detailed tactical plans for it. Each stage is based on the stages before it and in many cases there are functional interrelationships among the stages

Vision & Mission: The first stage is clarification of vision. The vision should be maintained all throughout. The second stage is stating the mission. This is a concrete statement of the line of work.

Mandates: The third stage is clarification of mandates, internal and external. Mandates are expectations from the organization and its leaders. Internal mandates are expectations of the members. External mandates are expectations of those outside the organizations. Fulfilling internal mandates is necessary to maintain member morale and  support. Externally-imposed mandates can not be ignored. If you can not fulfil them for lack of resources or if they contradict your mission, you must at least recognize them as important and explain your situation.

Stakeholder analysis: The fourth stage is analysis of stakeholders. Stakeholders are people or organizations who have an interest or vested interest in what you are doing. They are usually influential and can either reward or punish you. You have to understand the stakeholders’ interest, inclinations, potential rewards if you please them and potential punishments if you annoy them. Stakeholders will not support your strategies if you carelessly brush aside things that they consider important and that they would like you to address. They could even actively oppose you. The best approach is to get the stakeholders on your side. If this is not possible try to make them neutral. It is a mistake to provoke them into active opposition to your plans. You want all your energies to be directed to achieving your objectives and not to be diverted to the side-issue of fending off attacks from a powerful stakeholder. Sometimes all energy is wasted in this type of defensive action leaving no effort for achieving what you set out to do in the first place!

Environmental assessment: The fifth stage is environmental analysis. The environment may be supportive, hostile or passively neutral. Strategic planning requires careful and correct assessment of the environment: internal and external. Your strengths and weaknesses reflect your internal environment. Opportunities and threats are in the external environment. The internal and external environments are organically linked. Your strengths correspond to the opportunities available to you. You need the strengths to be able to exploit the opportunities. Your weaknesses correspond to the threats that you face. Threats will hurt you from the points of weakness.

Strategic issues: The sixth stage is identification f issues of strategic importance. Strategic issues are those that if not handled, the organization's continued existence, welfare, and successful performance will be affected negatively. You must be very careful in selecting strategic issues. You will be guided by your vision and those aspects of the environment that have a bearing on achieving or failure to achieve the organization’s objectives. Normally there are only a few issues that are really of strategic importance. A laundry list of issues indicates an unclear vision or an imperfect understanding of the environment in which you are operating

Information: the seventh stage is information gathering. No successful strategic plan can be formulated without collecting, analyzing, and using all the available information relevant to the issues under consideration. It is not possible to collect all the information needed. The future is essentially unknown; only Allah knows 'ilm al ghayb. Some assumptions and forecasts will have to be made for information that is not available.

Forecasting: The eighth stage is forecasting future trends. The main ingredient of a strategic plan is forecasting the future. The more accurate that forecast is, the better the plan. Inadequate forecasts result into unsuccessful plans. Forecasting is best done in brain storming session. Current trends are identified and their future movement is predicted using information available about the environment

Scenario casting: The ninth stage is working out possible future scenarios. Potential future scenarios are worked out using various combinations and permutations of the trends that were forecast above. Strategic planners should never be taken by surprise. They should formulate general plans for each possible future scenario. One of the scenarios is selected as the favored one based on certain pre-determined criteria. A detailed action plan is made for only the favored scenario. The other scenarios are kept as contingency plans

Analysis of the favored scenario: The tenth stage is analysis of the favored scenario. Once the favored scenario has been elaborated and the outlines of its action plans are clear, it should be analyzed using the following guidelines: Does it conform to the vision? Does it conform to the mission? How well does it address the mandates, internal and external? What are the likely reactions of the stakeholders? what will be your responses? What is the degree of uncertainty in the forecasts? How practicable are the actions envisaged?. Any chosen strategy will have external and internal impacts. Internally it will have an impact on action plans, resource allocation, policies, organizational structure & behavior, and motivation of the followers. Externally it may provoke other strategies that may be synergistic or competitive depending on the circumstances. Questions should be asked about the impact of the plan. What in general will be the internal and external impacts? What reactions are expected? How will you deal with the reactions?

Action plan and strategic plan: The final stage of planning is to translate the strategic plan into action/tactical plans. A strategic plan usually covers a long period of time. Its practical implementation is through a series of annual action or tactical plans.

Uncertainty: A strategic plan should always incorporate a degree of uncertainty because forecasts of the future are not always perfect. When forecasts are made, the forecaster must include a statement of degree of confidence in the forecast or should use a confidence range. Situations may arise in which due to uncertainty, the strategic planning process ends with various contingency plans with no chosen plan. Since none of the plans is favored, you can wait for environmental factors to indicate which plans are to be selected.

Contingency plans: Contingency plans should be ready for immediate implementation if the chosen plan fails or encounters obstacles. Contingency plans are based on the several scenarios that were generated in the process of arriving at the chosen strategy. Strategic planners do not stop to think how to get around an obstacle. They already have a plan for that contingency.

Practicability: Each chosen plan must be subjected to a workability test: can it work in practice?, can the underlying vision be maintained, can the barriers be overcome?

Review and updating: Strategic plans need constant revision as the basic information, assumptions, and forecasts on which the plans were based change with time and with implementation experience. In most normal circumstances the changes are small. Major radical changes could indicate either poor initial forecasting and planning or a radically changed environment.

Quantitative vs qualitative: All strategic targets should preferably be quantifiable for easy monitoring.

Levels of planning: A large organization with a wide array of activities may choose to have one overall strategy or may have for each area of activity if the areas are not integratable

Internal and not external weaknesses destroy the ummah: “Thauban reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Allah drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. And I have seen its eastern and western ends. And the dominion of my Ummah would reach those ends which have been drawn near me and I have been granted the red and the white treasures and I begged my Lord for my Ummah that it should not be destroyed because of famine, nor be dominated by an enemy who is not amongst them to take their lives and destroy them root and branch, and my Lord said: Muhammad, whenever I make a decision, there is none to change it. Well, I grant you for your Ummah that it would not be destroyed by famine and it would not be dominated by an enemy who would not be amongst it and would take their lives and destroy them root and branch even if all the people from the different parts of world join hand together (for this purpose) but it would be from amongst them, viz your Ummah, that some people would kill the others or imprison the others" Muslim 4: 1497, Chapter 1194, Hadith # 6904


Think of your particular organization or any other organization that you know well and answer the following questions regarding the organization’s educational mission. Make sure you mention the name of the organization and the nature of your involvement with it.

(a)       Who are we?

(b)       In general, what are the basic societal needs we exist to fill (or what are the basic societal problems we exist to address)?

(c)       In general, what do we want to do to recognize or anticipate and respond to these needs or problems?

(d)       What is our philosophy and what are our core values?

(e)       What makes us distinctive or unique?

Think of your particular organization that you know well and answer the questions regarding defining the organization’s educational mandate.  Make sure you mention the name of the organization and the nature of your involvement with it.

(a)       What are the externally-imposed mandates on the organization?

(b)       How will the organization respond to the mandates?

(c)       What are the consequences of not responding to the mandates?

Think of your particular organization that you know well and answer the questions regarding educational stakeholders.  Make sure you mention the name of the organization and the nature of your involvement with it.

(a)       Who are the individuals and organizations that have a vested interest in what your organization does?

(b)       What are their expected responses to your plans?

(c)       How will you deal with them?

Think of your particular organization that you know well and answer the questions on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the educational field.  Make sure you mention the name of the organization and the nature of your involvement with it.

(a)       List the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats for the organization

(b)       Identify relationships (i) between strengths and opportunities (ii) weaknesses and threats

Think of your particular organization that you know well and answer the questions regarding identification of strategic issues in the field of education. Make sure you mention the name of the organization and the nature of your involvement with it.

(a)       What is the issue? (Be sure to phrase the issue as a question about which your organization can take some sort of action).

(b)       Why is this an issue?

(c)       What are the consequences of not addressing this issue?

(d)       What are the practical alternatives we might pursue to address this issue?

Think of your particular organization that you know well and answer the questions. Make sure you mention the name of the organization and the nature of your involvement with it. Think of one strategic issue in the field of education for which you want to make a strategic plan. Answer the following questions about the information that you will need to collect.

(a)       What is the information needed for the plan?

(b)       Where is the information available?

(c)       How will the information be collected?

(d)       How will the information be used?

Think of a geographically and socially well-defined Muslim community that you know very well. Select one of the following areas of concern in the community. The following is a listing of areas of concern: family programs, youth programs, children programs, women programs, student programs, Islamic centers and mosques, pre-schools, elementary schools, secondary schools, higher educational institutions, social welfare, disaster relief, fund-raising, awqaf and investments, translation and publication of books, mass media, training,  politics. Outline a 10-year strategic plan for the area of concern that you have selected using the methods that you have learned. You have to show how the area of concern selected can contribute to the improvement of Muslim education.

Assume that the number of Muslims will either be stable or will increase. Assume that the general environment will be supportive of Islam.

Prepare a strategic plan as well as prepare contingency plans for the following scenarios: hostile external environment, neutral external environment, a situation of complete chaos.

Select the most favored scenario and give reasons for your choice.

Follow the following outline:

(a)       Vision

(b)       Mission

(c)       Mandate(s)

(d)       Stakeholder analysis

(e)       SWOT analysis

(f)        Strategic issues

(g)       Various scenarios

(h)       Favored scenario

(I)        Analysis of the favored scenario


Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

·        Understand how  to make effective strategic moves

·        Basic terminology
·        Incorporation of strategic moves in the strategic plan
·        Speed of strategic moves
·        Types of strategies vis-s-vis an opponent
·        Assessment of key players before making a strategic move 
·        Sequence of strategic moves
·        Conditioning of strategic moves
·        Zero sum vs variable sum moves
·        Factors to consider in planning strategic moves
·        Assessment of benefits/losses  of cooperation vis a vis confrontation
·        Strategic moves in cases of extreme uncertainty
·        Brinkmanship
·        Pre-emption


·        Umrat al qada: fulfillment of the treaty
·        Treatment of believing women who came to the Muslim camp


·        Post-Hudaybiyyah: Management Of Strategy 6-8 H
·        The Makkah Campaign: Case Study Of A Grand Strategy


Content: This chapter discusses the practical moves that are needed to implement a strategic plan and how to deal with obstacles and counter-moves from opponents of the plan

Basic terminology: strategic thrusts, strategic moves, programs,  action plans: Strategic thrusts are statements of strategic intents. Programs are translations of strategy into projects. Action plans are specific practical steps towards implementing a strategy, including tasks and timing. Strategic moves are actual measures taken to implement the strategy.

Incorporation of strategic moves in the strategic plan: Strategic moves must be incorporated in the strtegic plan. A strategy is useless unless it incorporates the necessary strategic moves that must be made, their timing and sequence. Flexibility is needed in planning strategic moves. The environment may change considerably during plan implementation which necessitates revision of the planned moves.

Speed of strategic moves: There are 3 types of strategic moves: (a) Sudden and major to throw competition off balance (b) Paced and incremental with continuous evaluation (c) Slow today, major impact in long-term perspective.

Types of strategies vis-s-vis an opponent: There are three types of strategies: dominant, dominated, and equilibrium. You must use dominant strategies and eliminate dominated ones. Equilibrium strategies are sometimes the best because each player's response is the best response and there is mutual benefit.

Assessment of key players before making a strategic move: Before making any strategic moves, key players (for and against the plan) must be identified and must be assessed. Key player assessment involves: their motivation, relative power, strengths, weaknesses, and probable behavior.
Sequence of strategic moves: Strategic moves may be sequential or simultaneous.

Conditioning of strategic moves: Strategic moves may be conditional or unconditional. Conditional moves are taken in relation to threats and promises. Promises and threats could be used as either deterrents or compellents. Unconditional moves  do not have to wait for some other event to occur. They are taken independently

Zero sum vs variable sum moves: In a zero sum situation, in which one person's gain is always another person's loss, pre-emptive action may be the best course of action. There are non-zero sum situations in which through collaboration and coordination, 2 players can assure a win/win outcome. In the extreme situation,  non-zero sum situation may end as lose-lose

Factors to consider in planning strategic moves: Relative power, resources, time, and the environment are to considered in assessing benefits/losses of particular strategic moves. Your Power, resources, timing . The opponent's power, resources, timing. Environmental changes affecting you and the opponent

Assessment of benefits/losses  of cooperation vis a vis confrontation: When deciding on which strategic moves to make, you have to consider your power vis-a-vis that of the opponent in the light of the benefits of cooperation with them. When your power is high it is better for you either to set your terms (if your benefit is low) or collaborate (if your benefit is high). If your power is low consider accepting the best offer (if yur benefit is low) or accommodation (if your benefit is high).

Strategic moves in cases of extreme uncertainty: Some strategic moves can be taken whatever the level of uncertainty. If you have nothing to lose and there is a slim chance of gaining, make the move even if the odds are overwhelmingly against you. If the immediate gains are more than the losses, the decision to make a move should be based on the long-term impact of a possible failure. A failure that could threaten the continued existence and efficient functioning of the organization should not be taken lightly.

Brinkmanship: Brinkmanship in strategic thinking is risky but may also be associated with a lot of rewards. It should be avoided where control or understanding of the risk are limited. Conservative players never approach the brink in any situation. The risk rises with the increase of the level of uncertainty. More daring players get near the brink and even stand on it. If they are wise they better know how to extricate themselves. If they do not know how to get out of such a situation, they have only themselves to blame for whatever catastrophes may follow.

Pre-emption: Pre-emptive moves involve taking reactive moves even before the events reacted to have not yet fully unfolded. Pre-emptive moves result in gain of lead-time. Reaction  to events before they occur gives you an advantage and an upper hand.


Umrat al qada: fulfilmnent of the treaty: Truly did Allah fulfil the vision for His Messenger. You shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, hair cut short, and without fear. For He knew what you knew not, and He granted, besides this, a speedy victory. Qur'an 48:27 … Narrated Al‑Bara': When the Prophet intended to perform 'Umra in the month of Dhul‑Qa'da, the people of Mecca did not let him enter Mecca till he settled the matter with them by promising to stay in it for three days only. When the document of treaty was written, the following was mentioned: 'These are the terms on which Muhammad, Allah's Apostle agreed (to make peace).' They said, "We will not agree to this, for if we believed that you are Allah's Apostle we would not prevent you but you are Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." The Prophet said, "I am Allah's Apostle and also Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." Then he said to 'Ali "Rub off (the words) 'Allah's Apostle' ", but 'Ali said, "No, by Allah, I will never rub off your name." So, Allah's Apostle took the document and wrote, 'This is what Muhammad bin 'Abdullah has agreed upon: No arms will be brought into Mecca except in their cases, and nobody from the people of Mecca will be allowed to go with him (i.e. the Prophet ) even if he wished to follow him and he (the Prophet) will not prevent any of his companions from staying in Mecca if the latter wants to stay.' When the Prophet entered Mecca and the time limit passed, the Meccans went to 'Ali and said, "Tell your Friend (i.e. the Prophet) to go out, as the period (agreed to) has passed." So, the Prophet went out of Mecca. The daughter of Hamza ran after them i e. the Prophet and his companions) calling, "O Uncle! O (Uncle!'' 'Ali received her and led her by the hand and said to Fatima, "Take your uncle's daughter. Zaid and Ja'far quarrelled about her. 'Ali said, "I have more right to her as she is my uncle's daughter. Ja'far said, "She is my uncle's daughter and her aunt is my wife.' Zaid said, "She is my brother's daughter." The prophet judged that she should be given to her aunt, and said that the aunt was like the mother. He then said to 'Ali, You are from me and I am from you", and said to Ja'far, "You resemble me both in character and appearance", and said to Zaid, "You are our brother (in faith) and our freed slave." Bukhari 3: 536-538, Hadith #863

Treatment of believing women who came to the Muslim camp: Narrated 'Urwa bin Az‑Zubair that he heard Marwan bin Al‑Hakam and Al‑Miswar bin Makhrama relating one of the events that happened to Allah's Apostle in the 'Umra of Al‑Hudai­biya. They said, "When Allah's Apostle concluded the truce with Suhail bin 'Amr on the day of Al‑Hudaibiya, one of the conditions which Suhail bin 'Amr stipulated, was his saying (to the Prophet), "If anyone from us (i.e. infidels) ever comes to you, though he has em­braced your religion, you should return him to us, and should not interfere be­tween us and him." Suhail ‑refused to conclude the truce with Allah's Apostle except on this condition. The Believers disliked this condition and got disgusted with it and argued about it But when Suhail refused to conclude the truce with Allah's Apostle except on that condition, Allah's Apostle concluded it Accordingly, Allah's Apostle then returned Abu Jandal bin Suhail to his father, Suhail bin 'Amr,and returned every man coming to him from them during that period even if he was a Muslim. The believing women Emigrants came to (Medina) including Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Uqba bin Abi Mu'ait was one of those who came to Allah's Apostle and she was an adult at that time. Her relatives came, asking Allah's Apostle to return her to them, and in this connection, Allah revealed the verses dealing with the believing women).'Aisha said, "Allah's Apostle used to test all the believing women who migrated to him, with the following verse. 'O Prophet! When the believing Women come to you, to give the pledge of allegiance to you(60: 12) when Allah ordered His Apostle to return to the pagans what they had given to their wives who lately migrated (to Medina) and we were informed that Abu Basir..." relating the whole narration. Bukhari 5:317-318, Hadith # 496

(a)       Draw a table showing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for Muslims in the years 6 AH and 8 AH

(b)       Draw a table showing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for Quraish in the years 6 AH and 8 AH

(C)      Identify strategic issues for Muslims in the post-Hudaybiyyah period. What strategic moves were made? What were the consequences? what were the original strategic moves? what were the counter-moves?


(a)       What was the ultimate vision of the Makkah campaign? Did it become a reality?

(b)       What was the mission of the Makkah campaign?
(c)       Can you identify any externally-imposed mandates?

(d)       What were the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and  threats for (i) the Muslims (ii) the Quraysh?

(e)       What were the strategic issues facing (i) the Muslims? (ii) the Quraysh?

(f)        Reconstruct from your reading what you think were the main elements of the Muslim strategic plan. How was each implemented?

(g)       What strategic considerations were behind the efforts to avoid humiliating the Quraish?

(h)              Who were the stakeholders among the Quraish? How were they won over? What were the strategic considerations behind treating them well?


Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

  • Understand effective strategy implementation

  • Phasing/staging strategy implementation
  • Requirements for strategy implementation
  • Motivated leader
  • Resources needed for strategy implementation
  • Organizational changes needed for implementation
  • Behavioral change needed for strategy implementation
  • Control measures for implementation
  • Monitoring
  • Situations in which contingency planning is used
  • Exploiting opportunities
  • Equilibrium
  • Difficulties in management of strategy
  • Opposition to strategy
  • Inertia
  • Selling the plan

  • Implementing a local strategy
  • Old and new management teams
  • Types of managerial personalities for strategic transitions
  • Behavior of various management types during strategic transitions


Phasing/staging strategy implementation: Strategic moves can be likened to a game of chess but several-fold more complicated. In chess the environment and the rules are well known; in strategy they are not. Like chess, strategic moves are in stages. The timing and sequence of such moves are part of strategic logic. Each strategic move must be broken down into its separate specific  components. This makes analysis, monitoring, and modification easier. Very big strategic moves occurring suddenly are associated with higher risk. Each move must be made taking into consideration previous moves and anticipated future moves

Requirements for strategy implementation: Strategy implementation requires motivated leaders, resources, organizational restructuring, and behavioral changes. Both the leadership and the organization (structure and culture) must adapt to the new strategy. The personality of the leader is very crucial in the early stages of a strategic shift. Pioneering types who aim at explosive growth or expansion are more likely to succeed than those who prefer stability, and continuous growth. However when the strategic shift has become complete then the more administrative types who prefer stability can take over. A new strategy may call for human, financial, and material resources not available in the organization. Part of strategic planning is to make sure those resources are available. Unavailability of resources is a strong reason for not embarking on a new strategy. It is also not wise to start the initial phases for which resources are available if there is no guarantee of resource availability for later stages. The  organization must change to match the new strategy: Changes are needed in organizational leadership, structure, design, and culture. Adaptation of the leadership style to the new strategy involves both the personality and style of the leaders. Key managers who understand and are committed to the strategic plan should  be put in the right positions. The whole strategic planning cum management process can fail if uncommitted people are entrusted with the execution. Adaptation of the  organizational structure & design to match the new strategy involves restructuring and reporting changes. The best restructuring is to let each department or unit deal with one or several related strategic issues/objectives. Top leadership then provides coordination between the various units. Operational and functional relationships must be linked through vertical and horizontal integration. The organizational culture must change to match the new strategy, the new vision and mission, and the long-term strategic perspective. Behavioral change needed for strategy implementation: Implementation of a strategic plan leads automatically to behavioral changes. This is because the vision and  sense of direction that are introduced. People are able to relate their individual contributions to a larger picture. They become more focussed and future-oriented.

Control & monitoring: Strict control measures are needed for action plans arising out of strategic plans to ensure that there is no deviation from the vision and mission of the organization or its plans. Monitoring: Monitoring of strategy implementation is of utmost importance. Monitoring covers the following: assumptions and information used in the plan, changes in key personnel, trends, and results. Monitoring can be continuous, at project milestones, during major crises, or at regular scheduled periods. The methodology of planning includes: updating information, predicting future behavior, identifying the impact of actual results on strategy

Contingencies: Situations in which contingency planning is used: Cases of high uncertainty . When forecasts are non-specific? When rapid response to changes is necessary. When particular conditions are likely.

Modifications of strategy for different levels of uncertainty: When uncertainty is low, program exactly. When uncertainty is moderate make progressive reassessment. When uncertainty is high, advance by stages. When uncertainty is very high, utilize prepared opportunism.

Exploiting opportunities: Be always prepared to exploit opportunities. This can be achieved by preparing reserve resources, monitoring the environment, and being ready for rapid reaction. Reserve resources for anticipated immediate needs must be set aside so that no time is spent in mobilizing resources. Monitoring the environment continuously is the only way of making sure that opportunities will be missed. The monitoring must be systematic. The leadership must be prepared to move into  rapid reaction when an opportunity appears

Equilibrium: Strategy implementation is a fine art of balancing opposing and sometimes contradictory forces and tendencies: Balancing  short-term vs long-term goals, Balancing internal vs external forces, Balancing the continuing vs new strategies and workplans, Balancing  stable vs risky options, Balancing time and effort spent in planning vs time for action

Difficulties in management of strategy: There are 4 main difficulties in the practical implementation, management, and control of strategic plans: There is usually a long lag-time between action and outcome. There is always uncertainty about the future. There are many dynamic shifts that require changing plans rapidly. Evaluation of implementation and results is difficult in the midst of action. Long lead-time between action and outcome. Uncertainty about the future. Dynamic shifts that cause strategy changes. Objective evaluation is difficult in the middle of action

Opposition to strategy: Strategy implementation requires dealing with recalcitrant or opposing members. Many people will oppose new strategies because they do not understand their importance for the future. There is conflict between the old and the new. Leadership must be ready to resolve conflicts that arise between new strategic plans and on-going activities. Potential opposition should be anticipated and measures taken to decrease it. Education and continuous effective communication could resolve many problems. Including potential opponents in the planning process could be useful

Inertia: Inertia is the main enemy of new strategies. Human beings stick to what is familiar and instinctively oppose the new. There is always resistance to new changes especially if there is no obvious crisis. Yet the essence of strategy is to foretell and make the necessary strategic moves before catastrophe shows its ugly face.

Selling the plan: Both motivation and logical persuasion are needed to sell a strategic plan especially in situations in which the new strategic plan is opposed



Using the strategic plan prepared in previous exercises, list the main steps you would undertake to implement it

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using new as opposed to old management teams in implementation of new strategies. For both new and old, list the advantages and the disadvantages. List possible barriers to implementation from the old management

Give examples of the following managerial personalities from your experience in educational institutions:

  • Pioneer (Intuitive Thinking, Explosive Growth)
  • Conqueror (Rational Thinking,  Expansive Growth)
  • Level-Headed (Rational Thinking, Continuous Growth)
  • Administrator  (Conformer In Thinking, Consolidation Of Growth)
  • Economizer (Legal Thinkng, Cautious Growth)
  • Diplomat (Open-Minded, Retreat And  Repositions)

Score each type of manager (pioneer, conqueror, level-headed, administrator, economizer, diplomat) as high, medium, or low using the criteria of conformity, sociability, activity/dynamism, and pressure to achieve.

Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

·        Description and classification of plans
·        Conceptual issues in planning

·        Action planning or tactical planning
·        Relation between planning and control
·        Characteristics of effective plans
·        Classification of plans according to different criteria
·        Limitation of planning due to uncontrollable factors
·        Failure to plan
·        Objections to planning
·        Resistance to change
·        Bad reputation of centralized planning
·        Fear of commitment
·        Reliance on previous experience
·        Complexity of planning
·        Elements of strategy and planning
·        Forecasting & scenarios
·        Planning and trust in Allah
·        Over-planning

·        Resources: provisions for hijra

·        Organizational planning


Action planning or tactical planning: Action planning is laying down the detailed tactical or operational plans. Action planning is problem-solving for the future. Plans made today have an impact on the future. Action planning is charting how to get from a point in time today to a point in the future. Action planning is important because it is a basis for other management functions. Leading, controlling, and organizing are directly determined by the plan. Action planning is preparation for and commitment to the future. It fosters pro-active decision-making and problem-solving while eliminating impulsive urges. A plan facilitates communication within and outside the organization. A plan helps the integration and coordination of organizational activities. An action plan defines what an organization is because it details what it wants to achieve; you are what you do. Organizations with plans are trusted; they know what they want to do and where to go.

Relation between planning and control: Planning and control processes are closely linked and mutually influence one another. Control ensures that the plan is implemented well. The plan defines criteria for control. Control identifies deviations necessitating plan modification.

Characteristics of effective plans: Effective plans have 4 characteristics: specific, action-oriented, flexible, and consistent with organizational long-term goals and objectives. A plan must be specific and cover only a clearly demarcated and well-defined scope of work. The more specific the plan is the more effective it will be. General and vague plans can not be implemented easily and it is difficult to evaluate their impact at the end.  A plan must be an action-oriented and not a theoretical document. It must specify what actions need to be taken to achieve the desired objectives. A plan must be flexible so that there is room for creativity during the implementation. This is necessary to be able to deal with sudden or unexpected changes. A very rigid plan fails in implementation as soon as an obstacle is encountered. A plan can not be free-standing; it must be consistent with established organizational objectives. If the plan deviates from those objectives or even contradicts them it has little chance of success. If implemented without first formally changing the organizational objectives, the organization will lose its credibility among the general public.

Classification of plans according to different criteria: The following shows classification of plans according to different criteria: (a) Objective: strategic, tactical/operational (b) Duration: short, medium, long-term (c) Specificity: general, specific (d) Complexity: complex, simple (e) Methodology: top to bottom, bottom to top (f) Scope: comprehensive, narrow (g) Importance: major, minor  (h) Scale of measure: qualitative, quantitative  (I) Security class: confidential, public (j) Formality: formal, informal (k) Implementability: easy, difficult  (l) Flexibility: flexible, inflexible (m) Creativity: rational, intuitive, creative (n) Cost: expensive, cheap

Limitation of planning due to uncontrollable factors: While emphasizing the importance of plans and planning, you should be aware of the limitations. Whole countries, organizations and even individuals have collapsed because they planned and implemented plans without being aware of the limitations. There are many factors in the environment  that are beyond your control let alone your knowledge. Only Allah knows and controls everything. You must therefore take this into consideration by distinguishing environmental factors over which you have control and those over which you have little control. You can plan exactly for what you have control over. A lot of flexibility should be built into the plan when dealing with what you have no control over. 

Failure to plan: Failure to plan is common in organizations. It is quite surprising that a high proportion of organizations do not have formal plans for guiding their activities. Most things are decided on an ad hoc basis. All new issues are discussed from first principles in order to reach a decision there being no plan to act as a reference. It is therefore not surprising that many contradictions and wrong decisions are made. Many leaders and organizations are so eager to act that they proceed without first planning. They sometimes feel planning wastes time and delays action. They think of planning after making mistakes and meeting frustrations. Sometimes program failure is difficult to identify because there is no bench-mark plan against which to compare. Many organizations believe they have plans when they do not. They follow the leader's whims presented in the guise of secretly-concocted plans. Apparent contradictions are not explained on.  The excuse that information is secret is sometimes used to hide failures. Some organizational plans have no direct relevance to the methodology of work or the types of activity the organization should be engaged in. Failure to plan, whatever its reasons, will hurt the organization in several ways.

Objections to planning: Philosophical objections to planning the future prevent some people from planning. They misunderstand the concepts of QADAR and ILM AL GHAIB. They reason that since only Allah knows the future and since everything is in His hands, it is preposterous for the human being to plan the future. The truth of the matter is that planning does not contradict QADAR or assumes knowledge of the unseen. It is just a human effort to organize human affairs in a better way. Like all human efforts it has its limitations and could be mistaken. Planning is therefore accepted as long as the planner is aware of the limitations and after making his plans places trust in Allah the almighty.

Resistance to change: Resistance to change in large well established organizations and bureaucracies is the underlying reason to oppose planning. People want to continue business as usual. Planning is objected to because it may be a catalyst for asking fundamental questions about the operation of the organization and thus lead to changes.

Bad reputation of centralized planning: Failure to see planning as rational and creative is a reason for many people avoiding planning. This is because of the bad reputation that centralized government planning has acquired in the past. Incompetent bureaucratic planners who have no touch with reality, possess no understanding of the real problems, and who had no visions to guide them have produced monstrous plans that caused havoc and waste.

Fear of commitment: Fear of commitment to plans once made is a major reason for leaders to refuse to plan. Once a plan is made and is known, there is benchmark against which their performance will be measured within a given time frame. Accepting a plan implies being committed to a certain course of action. They want to retain their freedom to do what they want, when and how they wish. Unclear goals and objectives make it virtually impossible to produce any plans. A plan is in essence a restatement of goals and objectives and practical measures for achieving them.

Reliance on previous experience: Excessive reliance on experience and failure to appreciate the need for fresh approaches and outlooks makes many long-standing leaders reject planning. Previous experience is good and should be used but there is a need for analysis of the situation and planning for the future. The future can not be the same as the past. It is a mistake to use yesterday’s solution for tomorrow without any modifications. 

Complexity of planning: Fear of planning as a difficult and complex process better left to experts results in organizations not planning if they do not have experts in planning. Planning is a difficult intellectual exercise that many people are reluctant to undertake. The basics of planning are easy to grasp and a non-expert can make a fairly good plan. Ignorance of the methodology of planning rather than making organizations seek to acquire the necessary technics and skills, sometimes makes them recoil away from the process. Planning takes time, effort and money. Sometimes a small project or organization may feel that they can not afford the expense of planning and that it is easier for them to proceed with action. You should always think also in terms of the cost of not planning. Misplaced priorities, failed projects, costly mistakes, and repetition of the work are costly and may be more expensive than the cost of planning. Individual resistance to planning may turn into systematic organizational resistance. There are individuals or groups of individuals within the organization who will resist the plan. This may be on valid and rational considerations or it may be just the disinclination to accept the  systematic work that planning institutes, reluctance to change old and tried ways of working, or personal animosity to those formulating and executing the plans.

Elements of strategy and planning: The following are the main elements in strategy and planning that are discussed in subsequent sections of this chapter: Vision, Mission, Goals, Objectives, Intentions (niyyat), Sincerity. Vision is a broad general direction. Vision is very important. There can be no strategy in absence of a guiding vision. Human experience down the ages shows that there is always a direct association between what you envision and what you achieve. Vision is non-specific. It is at the conceptual and emotional levels. It defines the general direction for the organization. Vision is the visualization of what you want the organization to be at some point in the future. The more graphic the description, the more effective. Mission is line of work and how to proceed with it. Goals are a broad definition of the mission. Objectives are exact specific definitions of goals. Intention (niyyat) is internal more spiritual than conceptual. Intentions and objectives must be sincere for success

Forecasting & scenarios: This is the ability to predict the future. The better the forecasting the better the planning. Forecasting depends on available information, study of current trends and a deep understanding of the people and institutions that you are working with. Forecasting does not assume 'ilm al ghaib. It is based on what is known at the moment. When forecasting you must know the human limitations and appreciate that you could be wide off the mark. These are various possibilities envisaged for the future. Scenario description must be as detailed as possible.

Planning and trust in Allah: When planning never forget that the ultimate aim is the pleasure of Allah. Goals, targets achieved without achieving the higher purpose of the pleasure of Allah are not worth much. You have to exert your best human effort in planning then entrust your affairs to Allah. The best of plans with very good execution can fail. Trust in Allah without planning and effort if TAWAAKUL and differs from TAWAKKUL which is effort followed by trust in Allah. Planning can not substitute for trust in Allah. He ultimately has final control over our destinies however much we plan. The trust we talk about is that which follows planning and taking all the humanly possible measures for success and then leaving it to the Lord. Blind trust without making any effort is not trust but failure and true religion can not countenance it.

Overplanning: A final word about how much planning should be done. Too much planning could stifle creativity and growth as happened in centralized totalitarian societies.


Resources: provisions for hijra: "Narrated Asma: I prepared the journey food for Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) in Abu Bakr's house when he intended to emigrate to Medina. I could not find anything to tie the food container and the water skin with. So, I said, to Abu Bakr, " By Allah, I do not find anything to tie ( these things ) with except my waist belt." He said, " Cut it into two pieces and tie the water skin with one piece and the food container with the other ( the subnarrator added, " She did accordingly and that was the reason for calling her dhat un nitaqain ( i.e. two belted woman).  Bukhari 4:141, Hadith #222


Think of one organization that you know well and answer the following questions regarding the educational field:

(a) Does it have a strategic plan?

(b) Does it have action plans?

(c) Who plans for the organization?

(d) How is the follow-up of plans?

Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

·        Understand how  to make a tactical or action plan

·        Chapter overview
·        Relation between action and strategic plans
·        The time dimension
·        How plans are used
·        Components of the planning process
·        Stages of the planning process
o   The environment
o   Vision and mission
o   Goals
o   Information
o   Assumptions and forecasts
o   Alternatives

o   Check-list for plans
o   Review of plans
o   Float time
o   Allowance for the human factor
o   Commonsense and simplicity
o   Who plans?
o   Planning bottom-up and top-down: centralization vs decentralization
o   Contingencies
o   Overplanning
o   Description of the annual action plan
o   Skeleton of the annual action plan

o   Islam calls for simplicity and ease

o   Evaluation of a planning process
o   Check-list of an action plan
o   Preparing an action plan for a local organization
o   Analyzing the hijra of the Prophet as an example of action planning
o   Hypothetical action plan for the first year of the Islamic state at Madina


Definitions: This chapter covers the main elements of an action plan, a description of goals, objectives, tasks (what, who, when, how). An action plan is implementation of a selected portion of the strategic plan. A series of tactical plans over several years accomplish the strategic objectives of the strategic plan. An action plan usually covers a short period of time usually 1-2 years.

How plans are used: Plans can be used in three different ways: as standing orders, as intermediate use plans, and as single use plans. Standing orders are policies, procedures, rules and regulations that are followed in a routine way. Intermediate use plans are usually programs or projects of a certain duration and with a specific objective or goal in mind. Single use plans are operational budgets, unit plans, and annual action plans

Components of Planning process: The planning process has 2 components: (a) determination of objectives, an expression of intention or NIYYAT, and (b) formulation of actions to achieve those objectives. Planning is an expression of intent, niyyat. Every human endeavor must have a niyyat for it to be of benefit. Niyyat also implies commitment because you are supposed to undertake only purposive activities to whose completion you should morally be committed. Formulation of actions to achieve set objectives is the essence of action planning

Stages of the planning process: The planning process must be systematic and follow rational problem-solving stages. The planning process has the following stages: (1) environmental analysis (swot process) (2) state vision and mission (3) niyyat and commitment (4) set goals: refinement of mission - key issues - general ends to be achieved (5) set objectives: specific statement of results expected (6) collect and analyze information (7) make assumptions/forecasts about missing information: controllable factors - uncontrollable factors (8) search for opportunities (9) consider all alternative solutions (10) decide on best alternative (11) formulate action plans to achieve objectives: define tasks needed to achieve objectives - delegate - set targets (12) communicate (13) set up control mechanisms (14) execution of the plan (15) follow-up and follow-through (16) evaluation using goals as criteria

The Environment: The environment in which you are going to operate must be understood. The internal environment are your strengths and weaknesses. The external environment are opportunities and threats.

Vision, mission, goals, and objectives: The vision and mission of the tactical plan are derived from the strategic plan. Goals are the key issues that you want to address. They are general ends to be reached. Good goals are challenging yet attainable. They are clear, specific, measurable, and time-phased. Objectives are specific statements of results expected. They define a specific direction and are a basis for control. Good goals are clear, they set targets, can be used to measure progress within a given time frame.

Information, assumptions, forecasts: Relevant information must be collected, cross-checked, and used in planning. Assumptions and forecasts are made when information is not perfect and the unknown future. In making forecasts a distinction must be made between controllable and uncontrollable factors. You can influence the former but not the latter. All alternative approaches should be considered. The best, which is adopted as the plan, is found by elimination.

Check-list for plans: To check completeness of the plan you must ask yourself 12 questions about the main elements of a plan: objective, implementors, those affected by the plan, methodology of implementation, time of implementation, place of implementation, cost of the plan, barriers to implementation, contingency plans, any other related plans, control and evaluation.

Review of plans: Plans must be reviewed regularly, either quarterly or biannually

Allowance for time and the human factor: The time scheduling should allow for some float time to be able to absorb some delays of some stages without disturbing deadlines for the whole plan. A good plan must make allowance for the human factor. Humans are not perfect. Things can not always go as planned.

Common sense and simplicity: Quite often poor plans are made when leaders rely unduly on sophisticated statistical tools and forecasts made easily accessible by today's technology and forget the old and tested tool of common sense. What may look sophisticated on paper will prove to be sheer nonsense in the field. The test of a good plan is to be able to explain it to a teenager and he understands the main elements. Major mistakes are often hidden in the high-ringing sophisticated jargon of today's planners.

Who plans: Participation of plan implementors in the planning process increases commitment to the plan and helps its successful execution. Planning bottom-up (decentralisation) or top-down (centralisation) can be used depending on the circumstances. In general it is better to plan bottom-up than top-down. Too much centralized planning may make micro sense but prove to be micro nonsense in the field.

Contingencies: Because of limitations of information sources and inability to forecast the future accurately, each action plan must include contingencies in case the main plan does not work or faces unforeseen obstacles.

Overplanning: The temptation to overplan must be resisted. Specific details may have to be left to the initiative of the people in the field carrying out the plan. Their creativity and initiative should not be stifled.

Description of the annual action plan: An annual action plan is a document that charts course of action for 1 year and is consistent with general strategic plan. It sets out the objectives, goals, time schedules of the various activities, as well as the required material and human resources. An action plan is a constraint on 'crisis planning'  since it anticipates events and plans for them and provides a detailed guideline for those executing the program. An action plan can be prepared by the central leadership (centralized) or the local leadership (decentralized). It is always best for the plan to be prepared by those who will be directly involved in its implementation. An action plan requires quarterly reviews and should be modified should the need arise

Skeleton of the annual action plan: A good action plan should contain the following elements (headings):  Title, Vision,  Mission, Goals, Objectives for each goal,  Tasks for each objective,   Detailed planning for each task: who is responsible? - methodology - timing - place - human resources (compute person-time) - non-human resources (as money, material) - expected result criteria of evaluation.   Appendices: background information used in planning - detailed description of methodology - resumes of key persons - details of budgetary computation




Think of any educational plan in whose formulation you were involved or about which you know very well and determine whether each of the following stages of planning was followed in formulating the plan

(1) environmental analysis (swot process)

(2) state vision and mission

(3) niyyat and commitment

(4) set goals: refinement of mission - key issues - general ends to be achieved

(5) set objectives: specific statement of results expected

(6) collect and analyze information

(7) make assumptions/forecasts about missing information: controllable factors - uncontrollable factors

(8) search for opportunities

(9) consider all alternative solutions

(10) decide on best alternative

(11) formulate action plans to achieve objectives: define tasks needed to achieve objectives - delegate - set targets

(12) communicate

(13) set up control mechanisms

(14) execution of the plan

(15) follow-up and follow-through (16) evaluation using goals as criteria


Use the following check list of completeness to assess any educational action plan that you are familiar with:

(1) What is vision, mission, goals, objectives, tasks

(2) Who will implement this plan?

(3) Who will be affected by this plan?

(4) Wow will the plan be implemented?

(5) When will the plan be implemented?

(6) Where will the plan be implemented?

(7) What will the plan cost (human and material)?

(8) What are the likely barriers to implementation?

(9) What are the contingency plans if main plan fails?

(10) What are the related plans?

(11) How will the plan be controlled and evaluated?


This exercise can be done by an individual or a small group. Think of a geographically and socially well-defined Muslim community that you know very well or an organization to which you belong or whose operations are very familiar to you. Outline a 1-year action plan to address a selected education issue. The action plan should be based on the general strategic plan that you prepared in previous exercises.

Provide some basic information (50 words) on which your planning will be based: total population to be served, socio-demographic characteristics, existing facilities and resources in the community, main elements of the long-term strategic plan.

Since this is a class-room exercise and you have no time to prepare a comprehensive plan, choose only one field of concern.

List your vision, mission, goals, objectives, and tasks. Choose only one task and plan for it in detail. Follow the following outline:



(a) What was the overall vision

(b) What was the mission?

(c) What were the goals?

(d) What were the objectives?

(e) What were the different tasks of the plan?

(f) For each task provide the following:
            Who was responsible?
            How was it carried out?
            When was the task (start, end, timing)
            Where was the task carried out?
            What were the human resources involved?
            What were the non-human resources involved?
            What were the expected results?

(g) What were the opportunities and threats?

(h) What could have been the alternative contingency plans?

(i) Who would feel the impact of the plan if it succeeded?0

(j) How did Hijra contribute to the overall strategic plan?

(k) What lessons do you derive from Hijra for your local work?       


Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

The main events in the first year at Madina were:
1. Promulgation of the Madina constitution
2. Building mosque
3. Brotherhood between ansar and muhajirin Hashr:9, Anfal: 72
4. Brotherhood among all Muslims Anfal:63
5. Ghazawat and saraya: Haj: 39-40, Anfal: 39

First year at Madina

Using back ward thinking, draw up a one year action plan for (a) the hijra and (b) the first year at Madinah.


'Amir b. Fuhayrah was a half‑breed from the tribe of Azd belong ing to al‑Tufayl b. 'Abdallah b. Sakhbarah  who had the same mother as Abu Bakr's daughter 'A'ishah and his son 'Abd al‑Rahman. Amir b. Fuhayrah became a Muslim while he was their slave, and Abu Bakr bought him and set him free. He was a good Muslim. At the time when the Prophet and Abu Bakr set out, Abu Bakr had the rights to the milk of a flock of sheep which used to come to his family in the evening. Abu Bakr sent 'Amir with the sheep to Thawr, and he used to bring them in the evening to the Messenger of God in the cave there Which is the cave named by God in the Qur'an. Tabari 6:146

They sent ahead with their mounts a man from the Banu 'Abd b. 'Adl, a confederate of the family of al‑'As b. Wa'il of Banu Sahm of Quraysh. At that time, this man 'Adi was a polytheist, but they hired him as a guide for the journey. During the nights which they spent in the cave 'Abdallah b. Abi Bakr used to come to them in the evening and bring them all the news of Mecca, and then re­turn to Mecca by morning. 'Amir would bring the sheep every evening so that they could milk them, and would then drive them to pasture at daybreak, and spend the morning with other peo­ple's shepherds, so that nobody realized what he was doing. Tabari 6:146

The Messenger of God and Abu Bakr spent three days in the cave. When Quraysh realized that he was missing, they offered a hundred she‑camels for whoever would bring him back to them. 'Abdallah b. Abi Bakr spent his time among Quraysh listening to what they were plotting and to what they were saying about the Messenger of God and Abu Bakr. Then he would come to them in the evening and give them the news. 'Amir b. Fuhayrah, Abu Bakr's mawla, pastured his flocks among the other Meccan shep­herds, and brought Abu Bakr's sheep to the cave in the evening, when the two men would milk them and slaughter jone of 1 them. When 'Abdallah b. Ahl Bakr left for Mecca the following morning, 'Amir b. Fuhayrah would follow after him with the sheep in order to erase his trail.

When the third day had gone past, and the people's interest in the two had died down, the man whom they had hired brought them their camels and Asma' brought them their travelling pro­visions. She had forgotten to bring them a strap, and when they set off, she went to attach the travelling provisions and found that there was no strap. She took off her girdle and used that as a strap to attach the provisions. Thereafter she was known as "She of the two girdles" on account of this incident. When Abu Bakr brought the two riding camels to the Messenger of God, he gave him the better of the two and said, "Mount, may my father and mother be your ransom." The Messenger of God replied, "I will not ride a camel which does not belong to me." "It is yours, O Messenger of God whom I value more than my father and mother," he said. "No," said the Messenger of God. "What is the price which you paid for it?" He named the price, and the Messenger of God said, "I will take it for that price." Abu Bakr said, "It is yours, O Messenger of God." They mounted and set off, and Abu Bakr mounted behind himself his mawla 'Amir b. Fuhayrah, who was to serve them during the journey. Tabari 6:149

When the clamor about Muhammad and Abu Bakr died down and news came to them that people were no longer talking about them, their guide brought them their camels and they set off, taking with them 'Amir b. Fuhayrah to serve them and assist them. Abu Bakr mounted him behind him and shared the saddle with him by turns. There was nobody with them but 'Amir b. Fuhayrah and the brother of the Banu 'Adi, who guided them along the road. He took them through the Meccan lowlands, then along a route parallel to the coast below 'Usfan, then across country, rejoining the road after Qudayd, then along the al‑Kharrar path, then across the pass of al‑Marah, and then along a road called al‑Mudlijah, be­tween the 'Amq road and the Rawha' road. He then met the 'Arj road, coming to a spring called al‑Ghabir to the right of Rakubah, and then ascended the Batn Ri'm, finally arriving, one day at high noon, at the quarter of the Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf in Ithe south of) al ­Madinah. I have been told that the Messenger of God only stayed among them for two days, although the Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf assert that he stayed among them for longer than that. Then he led his camel, which followed him to the quarter of the Banu al‑Najjar. There the Messenger of God showed them a drying floor in the midst of their dwellings. Tabari 6:147

Their guide brought them to Quba' in the quarter of the Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi' I [September 24, 622] when the heat of the forenoon had grown intense and the sun had almost reached its midpoint in the sky Tabari 6:150

The Messenger of God remained at Quba' among the Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf for Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, and founded their mosque. Then God caused‑him to leave them on Friday. The Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf assert that he remained among them longer than that, but God knows best. Some say that his stay at Quba' lasted for ten days or so. Tabari 6:152

(a) Building mosque and house: According to Ibn Humayd--Salamah--Ibn Ishaq: The Messenger of God mounted his she‑camel and let her reins hang loose. The inhabitants of every settlement of the Ansar (the Muslims of Medina) which she went past invited him to stay with them, say­ing, "Come, O Messenger of God, to a settlement which has many defenders and is well‑provisioned and impregnable." He would say to them, "Let go her reins, for she is commanded (by God)." Finally he reached the present site of his mosque, and his camel knelt down where the door of his mosque is. At that time this place was a drying‑floor for dates and belonged to two orphan boys of Banu al‑Najjar under the guardianship of Mu'adh b. 'Afra'; their names were Sahl and Suhayl, sons of 'Amr b. 'Abbad b. Tha'labah b. Ghanm b. Malik b. al‑Najjar. When the camel knelt down, the Messenger of God remained on her. After a little she got up and went a short distance, while the Messenger of God let go her reins and did not direct her with them. Then she turned round, went back to the place where she had knelt first, and there knelt and laid down her neck. When the Messenger of God dis­mounted from her, Abu Ayyub took his saddle into his house. Others of the Ansar invited him to stay with them but the Mes­senger of God said to them, "The man goes with his saddle," and stayed with Abu Ayyub Khalid b. Zayd b. Kulayb among the Banu Ghanm b. al‑Najjar. According to Abu Ja'far (al‑Tabari): The Messenger of God asked to whom the drying‑floor belonged, and Mu'adh b. 'Afra' told him, "It belongs to two orphans under my guardianship, whom I will compensate for it." The Messenger of God ordered that a mosque should be built there, and stayed with Abu Ayyub until the mosque and his living‑quarters had been completed. It is said that the Messenger of God bought the site of his mosque and then built upon it, but the correct version in our Opinion is this, according to Mujahid b. Musa-Yazid b. Ha­run-Hammad b. Salamah-Abu al‑Tayyah-Anas b. Malik The site of the mosque of the Prophet belonged to Banu al‑Najjar and contained palm trees, cultivated land and pre‑lslamic graves. The Messenger of God said to them, "Ask me a price for it," but they said, "We do not want a price for it, but only the reward we shall receive from God. " The Messenger of God then gave orders concerning the site; the palm trees were cut down, the cultivated land levelled, and the graves dug up. Before this mosque was com­pleted the Messenger of God used to pray in sheep‑enclosures or wherever the time of prayer overtook him.

 According to Abu Ja'far (al‑Tabari): He himself joined in the work of building his mosque, together with his companions from the Emigrants and the Ansar. Tabari 7:4-5

(b) Muslim women brought to Madina
In this year the Prophet sent Zayd b. Harithah and Abu Rafi' to his daughters and his wife Sawdah bt. Zam'ah, and they brought them from Mecca to Medina. It is said that when 'Abd Allah b. Urayqit' returned to Mecca he informed 'Abd Allah b. Abi Bakr of the situation of his father Abu Bakr, and the latter brought his father's family to him. The party included Umm Ruman, the mother of 'A'ishah, ('A'ishah herself ) and 'Abd Allah b. Abi Bakr, and they were accompanied to Medina by Talhah b. 'Ubayd Allah. Tabari 7:8

(c) Expedition led by Hamza: Al‑Waiqidi asserts that in this year, in Ramadan, seven months af­ter the Hijrah (about March 623), the Messenger of God entrusted a white banner to Hamzah b. 'Abd al‑Muttalib with the command of thirty men of the Emigrants. Their aim was to intercept the caravans of Quraysh. Hamzah met Abu Jahl at the head of three hundred men. Majdi b. 'Amr al‑Juham intervened between them, and they separated without a battle. The banner of Hamzah was carried by Abu Marthad.
Tabari 7:10-14

(d) Expedition Led by 'Ubaydah: (He also says that) in this year, eight months after the Hijrah, in Shawwal (April 623), the Messenger of God entrusted a white banner to 'Ubaydah b. al‑Harith b. al‑Muttalib b. 'Abd Manaf and ordered him to march to Batn Rabigh. His banner was carried by Mistah b. Uthathah. He reached the pass of al‑Marah, which is near al‑Juhfah, at the head of sixty Emigrants without a single Ansan (Muslim of Medina) among them. They met the polythe­ists at a watering place called Ahya'; they shot arrows at one another but there was no hand‑to‑hand fighting. There is a difference of opinion as to who was the commander of the (Meccan) expedition; some say that it was Abu Sufyan b. Harb and some that it was Mikraz b. Hafs. Al‑Waqidi says: I consider the true account to be that it was Abu Sufyan b. Harb, and that he was at the head of two hundred polytheists.

(e) Expedition Led by Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas: In this year, in Dhu al‑Qa'dah, the Messenger of God entrusted to Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas a white banner (for an expedition) to al­Kharrar It was carried by al‑Miqdad b. 'Amr. According to Abu Bakr b. Isma'il-his father-'Amir b Sa'd-his father: I set out on foot at the head of twenty men (or twenty‑one men). We used to lie hidden by day and march at night, until we reached al‑Kharrar on the fifth morning. The Mes­senger of God had enjoined me not to go beyond al‑Kharrar, but the caravan had got to al‑Kharrar a day before me; there were sixty men with it. Those who were with Sa'd were all from the Emigrants. According to Abu Ja'far (al‑Tabari): Ibn Ishaq's account of all these expeditions differs from that of al‑Waqidi, which I have just related, and places them all in year 2.

(f) Expedition Led by Muhammad to al‑Abwa': According to Ibn Humayd--Salamah b. al‑Fadl--Muhammad b. Ishaq: The Messenger of God came to Medina on the twelfth of Rabi' al‑Awwal (September 24, 622), and remained there for the rest of Rabl' al‑Awwal, Rabi' al‑Akhir, the two Jumadas, Rajab Sha'ban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhu al‑Qa'dah, Dhu al‑Hijjah--the pilgrimage in that month was directed by the polytheists--and Muharram. In Safar (which began August 4, 623), nearly twelve months after his arrival in Medina on the twelfth of Rabl' al ­Awwal, he went out on a raid as far as Waddan, searching for Quraysh and the Banu Damrah b. Bakr b. 'Abd Manat b. Kinanah. This was the expedition of al‑Abwa', in the course of which the Banu Damrah made a treaty of friendship with him; their fellow ­tribesman and chief, Makhshi b. 'Amr, acted on their behalf. Then the Messenger of God returned to Medina without any fighting, and remained there for the rest of Safar and the begin­ning of Rabi' al‑Awwal.

(g) Further Details About Expeditions: During this stay he sent 'Ubaydah b. al‑Harith b. al‑Muttalib at the head of eighty or sixty horsemen from the Emigrants without a single Ansan among them. He got as far as Ahya', a watering place in Hijaz, below the pass of al‑Marah.26 There he met a great band of Quraysh, but there was no fighting between them, except that Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas shot an arrow on that day, which was the first arrow shot in Islam. Then the two groups separated from one another, the Muslims leaving a rearguard. Al‑Miqdad b. 'Amr al­Bahram, the confederate (halif) of the Banu Zuhrah, and 'Utbah b. Ghazwan b. Jabir, the confederate of the Banu Nawfal b. 'Abd Manaf, fled from the polytheists to the Muslims. They were Mus­lims, but they had gone to try to effect a reconciliation between the unbelievers and the Muslims. The commander of the Meccan detachment was 'Ikrimah b. Abi Jahl.

 Muhammad (b. Ishaq) says: The banner of 'Ubaydah, I have heard, was the first banner which the Messenger of God entrusted to a Muslim in Islam.

According to Ibn Humayd--Salamah--Muhammad b. Ishaq: Some of the scholars assert that the Messenger of God sent him out while he was returning from the raid of al‑Abwa', before he reached Medina.

During this stay he sent Hamzah b. 'Abd al‑Muttalib at the head of thirty horsemen from the Emigrants, without a single Ansari among them, to Sif al‑Bahr, near al‑'Is, which is in the territory of Juhaynah. He met Abu Jahl b. Hisham on the coast there at the head of three hundred Meccan horsemen. Majdi b. 'Amr al­Juham intervened between them, being on friendly terms with both parties, and the two sides separated without a battle.

Some say that the banner of Hamzah was the first banner which the Messenger of God entrusted to a Muslim. This is be­cause he sent him and 'Ubaydah b. al‑Harith at the same time, so that there is confusion on this point.

What we have heard from scholars to whom we have spoken is that the banner of 'Ubaydah b. al‑Harith was the first banner to be entrusted in Islam.

(h) Expeditions Led by Muhammad

Then the Messenger of God led an expedition in Rabl' al‑Akhir [....] in search of Quraysh. He went as far as Buwat in the region of Radwa and then returned without any fighting.

He stayed in Medina for the rest of Rabl' al‑Akhir and part of Jumada al‑Ula (which began October 3I, 623) and then led an­other expedition in search of Quraysh. He took the mountain track of the Banu Dinar b. al‑Najjar (of Medina) and then crossed the desert of al‑Khabar, halting beneath a tree in the Batha' Ibn Azhar called Dhat al‑Saq. He prayed there, and his mosque is there. Food was prepared for him there, and he and those with him ate. The site there of the stones on which his cooking‑pot was supported is still well‑known. Water was brought to him from water called al‑Mushayrib. Then he set off, leaving al­Khala'iq on the left and going through a pass, now called Shu'bat 'Abd Allah. From that point, he went down to the left until he reached Yalyal, halting where Yalyal adjoined al‑Dabu'ah. Water was brought to him from a well at al‑Dabu'ah. Next, he went through the plain of Malal until he joined the road at Sukhayrat al‑Yamam, then kept to the road until he halted at al‑'Ushayrah in the Batn Yanbu'. He stayed there for the rest of Jumada al‑Ula and a few days of Jumada al‑Akhira (which began November 30, 623). During this time, the Banu Mudlij and their confederates from the Banu Damrah made a treaty of friendship with him. Then he went back to Medina without any fighting. In the course of this expedition he made certain remarks to 'Ali b. Abi Talib.

The Messenger of God had only spent a few days in Medina, less than ten, after coming back from the expedition to al‑'Ushay­rah, before Kurz b. Jabir al‑Fihn raided the herds of Medina. The Messenger of God went out in pursuit of him and reached a valley called Safawan in the region of Badr, but Kurz eluded him and was not caught. This was the first expedition of Badr.

Then the Messenger of God returned to Medina and stayed there for the rest of Jumada al‑Akhirah, Rajab and Sha'ban (De­cember 623 to February 25, 624). Among other expeditions he sent out at this time was one under Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas at the head of eight men.
Tabari 7:10-14

Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

·        Conceptual aspects of project implementation
·        Practical aspects of project implementation

·        Implementation as a management function
·        Components of Implementation
·        Start and end of implementation
·        Civilization is implementation of ideas
·        Projects failure due to poor implementation
·        Reasons for things not getting done:
·        Action deficiency
·        Reliance on Allah
·        Implementation in the plan
·        Implementation team
·        Decisions in implementation
·        Paper work and bureaucracy
·        Equilibrium between effectiveness vs efficiency
·        Requirements for successful implementation
·        Project cycle
·        Stages of implementation:
·        Information and communication
·        Charting project progress:
·        Managing multiple priorities
·        Time use:
·        Auditing deadline crises:
·        Contingencies
·        Routine and procedures
·        Pro-activity
·        Simplicity
·        Practicality and pragmatism
·        Intuition from experience
·        Incremental approach
·        Risk, perfectionism, uncertainty
·        Records
·        Human skills
·        Delegation
·        Communication
·        Negotiation
·        Termination

·        Actions must be consistent with words (credible)
·        Praise for work done by others
·        Completing tasks
·        Continuity of work
·        Short but perfect
·        Gradual requests in getting compliance
·        Some correct actions to be postponed if they will be misunderstood
·        Continuity of work
·        Best of work is what is continuous even if little
·        Best of work is what is continuous; do what you can
·        Building the prophet's mosque at Madinah
·        Digging the trench
·        Building of Kufah
·        Building of Basrah:

·        Successful implementation
·        Stages of implementation
·        Control of project implementation: gantt chart
·        Control of project implementation: pert/cm table
·        Causes of failure in implementation
·        Simulated project implementation
·        Use of routines in implementation
·        Project leader check list
·        Documentation for project implementation


Implementation as a management function:
·        Implementation is an important management function that is often neglected.

Components of Implementation
·        Inputs
·        Transformation
·        Outputs (products or services)

Start and end of implementation
·        You start with inputs and transform them into outputs. Implementation is the process of transformation. Implementation thus has a beginning and an end.
·        Implementation involves breaking down the work into manageable steps or tasks, costing, scheduling, follow-up, control.
·        Successful implementation is an art that is learned through experience.

Civilization is implementation of ideas:
·        All civilizations are built on ideas that get implemented.
·        Ideas that are not put into practice are worth very little.
·        Many good ideas and decisions never see the light of the day because of inaction.

Projects failure due to poor implementation:
·        In our experience many group projects do not succeed not for lack of insight or necessary resources but because of missing or poor implementation.

Reasons for things not getting done:
·        Vision not clear
·        Goals too big
·        Task unpleasant
·        Indecision, lack of confidence
·        Poor planning
·        Time not enough
·        Distractions

Action deficiency
·        In many cases, the problem is not poor implementation but lack of inertia and momentum to do something.
·        Lack of vision, purpose, objectives, and self confidence are causes of inertia.
·        Failure to carry out things that have to be done leads to loss of credibility. Your actions must be consistent with your words. Do not tell others to do things that you yourself fail to do.
·        Action deficiency disease sometimes manifests as an attempt to claim credit for work not done. The claim may be purely fabricated fantasies or taking credit for work done by others.
·        Being overwhelmed by too many projects may result in inaction. You succeed by trying, there is no movement without trying. The more you try to exert yourself, the more likely is the success.
·        Take action to make sure that what you want to happen will actually happen.
·        Never wait for anything to happen on its own.
·        Do not procrastinate when action is what is called for.

Reliance on Allah:
·        When you have exerted your maximum human effort in planning and preparation
·        Act and rely on Allah for the results.

Implementation in the plan:
·        The implementation strategy must be built in the action plan.

Implementation team:
·        An implementation team must be set for each project.
·        Successful implementation requires good team management skills.
·        You must learn dealing with different personalities.

Decisions in implementation:
·        The implementor has to make decisions constantly.
·        Some are long-term strategic decisions.
·        Others are tactical/operational covering a period of 1 year.
·        Others are day-to-day operational decisions.

Paper work and bureaucracy:
·        Paper-work and bureaucracy are enemies of successful implementation if overused.

Equilibrium between effectiveness vs efficiency:
·        Both effectiveness (achieving targets) and efficiency (doing things right at minimum cost) are important in implementation.
·        Successful implementation strikes due balance between the two.

Requirements for successful implementation:
·        A manager must have vision, good planning, follow-up and follow-through for successful implementation.
·        Successful implementation requires, in addition,  proper knowledge and skill, clear well written goals (specific, flexible, realistic), clear priorities, a clear plan of action, and emphasis on quality control (QC), quality assurance (QA) and quality improvement (QI).

Project cycle:
·        Project implementation proceeds through stages, also called the project planning and control cycle.
·        A project plan is the starting point.
·        Tasks are then defined and are assigned to persons who will implement them.
·        Task completion is assured by follow-up and control.

Stages of implementation:
·        Plan: Preparation before start of implementation is everything. Take time to prepare well, work out the details, and anticipate problems before commencement.
·        Mobilization of resources: Plan your resources, know where they are, how to get to them, and how to use them. Cost planning must be exact to avoid cost overruns, a usual phenomenon in inefficient projects. A skill matrix should be drawn up for each project
·        Definition of tasks: structured? :yes/no - skill variety - task identity (complete job) - task significance - autonomy - feedback - task interdependence
·        Task assignments: explain what to do - explain where assignee fits in the overall picture - give a time frame - be considerate -give credit
·        Assure task completion: get focused - cut through clutter - understand your priorities - avoid interruptions -budget time for task

Information and communication:
·        Make sure that all concerned are in the information loop.
·        Set up and use communication channels.
·        Project status reports must be timely, informative and written in a problem-solving format.

Charting project progress:
·        Graphic representation is effective when used to display project activities, duration of the various tasks, and an indication of the sequence of activities that are most critical at the time of project completion (the critical path).
·        PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technic) involves deciding what functions should be performed and what activities will be necessary as well as estimating the resources needed.
·        Continuous monitoring helps you identify errors and take preventive or corrective action. In some cases the baseline plan may have to be changed.
·        Modern computer technology can be used to make project monitoring and control more timely and more efficient.

Managing multiple priorities:
·        In many projects the implementor will have to deal with multiple priorities successfully. Budgets get squeezed and time is tight.
·        The implementor must be on top of all the different schedules and work-loads.

Time use:
·        Timing and sequencing of tasks and activities is important. Tasks well done but in the wrong sequence can wreak havoc on the whole project.
·        Tasks once started must be completed. Work must be continuous; a bust of activity followed by long periods of inactivity is a recipe for failure. It is better to do little at a time, do it well, and do it all the time.

Auditing deadline crises:
·        Deadlines must be kept. Whenever a deadline is not reached or when there is a deadline crisis in project implementation, an audit must be carried out to find the causes and learn from the experience for the benefit of future projects.
·        The following questions must be asked of every deadline crisis:
o   What did I do to create the crisis?
o   What was the distraction?
o   How was time wasted?
o   Will problems recur?
o   What was the role of conflict?
o   What did I learn?

·                    Each situation requires a specific approach, we can not use a manual
·        Emergency situations do occur. They may be occasional or may occur at expected milestones.
·        Anticipation of as many problem as possible and preparing contingency plans for them is the secret of successful Implementation.
·        You must always have well-worked out contingency plans to deal with the usual problems that usually occur.
·        Despite the best of anticipatory planning surprises always occur. Successful implementors requires highly developed skills in improvising to deal with unexpected surprises.

Routine and procedures
·        Implementation routines have advantages and disadvantages. You must know when to use a routine. Application should be automatically triggered by the relevant situation. The implementor must understand the routine in order to use it well.
·        Implementation is not time for thinking about actions and their motivations. There is no time to think about alternative courses of action. All thought must be about implementing the set plan.
·        Thinking, planning, and information collection must finally reach a point of no return and must be followed by action.
·        Knowledge and information do not lead automatically to action. Many knowledgeable and creative people are not effective. Initiative, the ability to make choices are necessary for action.

·        Project management is a pro-active effort.
·        If you wait for things to happen and you only react you will fail very rapidly.

·        Simplicity is a key to successful implementation.
·        Any procedure that requires involved explanation is likely to fail.
·        Actions must be simple, doable and with a potential to be effective.

Practicality and pragmatism:
·        A successful implementor is both practical and pragmatic.
·        Pragmatism means being in tune with the environment and pursuing the art of the possible.
·        Sometimes the word pragmatic takes on a negative coloration to mean lack of principles. You can be pragmatic while being principled and walking in the moral lane. You will need to remember that the end never justifies the means.
·        Project implementation requires a lot of pragmatism and being practical. Everything is possible. You have to take the best action in a given situation.

Intuition from experience:
·        After a lot of implementation experience you may develop your intuition to the point that you can guess right and be "street smart"

Incremental approach:
·        Incrementalism is an implementation method appropriate for situations with uncertain information.
·        You assess the situation as you go along and do what is possible and is practical.

Risk, perfectionism, uncertainty:
·        In order to be effective we have to accept some degree of risk.
·        Trying to play safe and be perfect may destroy initiative for action.

·        You must maintain a project diary in which all significant project events are written.
·        Good documentation reduces errors and misunderstandings.

Human skills:
·        Projects involve managing people.
·        Interpersonal relations are crucial.

·        You have to delegate many of the responsibilities in order to have time to carry out leadership functions such as planning and control.

·        Good communication is needed.
·        You must make sure that instructions are understood and are carried out in time.

·        Negotiation ability is necessary.
·        You have to negotiate win-win with many people to obtain cooperatio and finish the project

·        The terminal stages of the project are as important as the start.
·        You must plan the termination carefully.
·        Fix a termination date in advance and advertize it.
·        Plan for the post-project period.


Actions must be consistent with words (credible): Do you enjoin right conduct on the people, and forget ( To practice it ) yourself. And yet you study the Scripture ? Will you not understand ? Qur'an 2:44

Praise for work done by others: Think not that those who exult in what they have brought about, and love to be praised for what they have not done think not that they can escape the Penalty. For them is a penalty grievous indeed.     Qur'an 3:188

Completing tasks: "Aisha reported the Apostle of Allah ( may peace be upon him ) as saying: Choose such actions as you are capable of performing, for Allah does not grow weary till you do. The acts most pleasing to Allah are those which are done most continuously, even if they amount to little, Whenever he began an action, he would do it continuously"  Abu Daud 1:358, Chapter 468, Hadith # 1363

Continuity of work: "Aisha reported Allah's Messenger ( may peace be upon him ) as saying: The acts most pleasing to Allah are those which are done continuously, even if they are small, and when Aisha did any act she did it continuously"  Muslim 1: 377-378, Chapter 273, Hadith # 1713

Short but perfect: "Narrated Anas : The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) used to pray a short prayer ( in congregation ) but used to offer it in a perfect manner."  Bukhari 1:381, hadith # 674

Gradual requests in getting compliance: "Narrated Ibn Abbas : The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) sent Muadh to Yemen and said, " Invite the people to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I am Allah's Apostle, and if they obey you to do so, then inform them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers in every day and night ( in twenty-four hours ), and if they obey you to do so, then inform them that Allah has made it obligatory for them to pay the Zakat from their property and it is to be taken from the wealthy among them and given to the poor"  Bukhari 2;271-272, hadith # 478

Some correct actions to be postponed if they will be misunderstood: "Narrated Aisha : Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) said to me, " were your people not close to the Pre-Islamic period of ignorance, I would have demolished the Kaba and would have re-built it on its original foundations laid by Abraham ( for Quraish had curtailed its building ), and I would have built a back door too"  Bukhari 2:383, hadith # 655

Continuity of work: "Narrated Aisha : Once the Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) came while a woman was sitting with me. He said, " Who is she? I replied, " She is so and so," and told him about her ( excessive praying. He said disapprovingly, " Do ( good ) deeds which is within your capacity ( without being overtaxed ) as Allah does not get tired ( of giving rewards ) but ( surely ) you will get tired and the best deed ( act of worship ) in the sight of Allah is that which is done regularly"   Bukhari 1:37, chapter 33, hadith # 41

Best of work is what is continuous even if little: "Narrated Aisha : The Prophet used to construct a room with a Hasir at night in order to pray therein, and during the day he used to spread it out and sit on it. The people started coming to the Prophet at night to offer the prayer behind him. When their number increased the Prophet faced them and said, " O people ! Do only those good deeds which you can do, for Allah does not get tired ( of giving reward ) till you get tired, and the best deeds to Allah are the incessant ones though they were few"  Bukhari 7:499, hadith # 752

Best of work is what is continuous; do what you can:            "Narrated Aishah : The Prophet was asked. " What deeds are loved most by Allah? he said. The most regular constant deeds even though they may be few." He added. Don,t take upon yourselves, except the deeds which are within your ability."   Bukhari 8:314, hadith # 472

Building the prophet's mosque at Madina: "Narrated Anas...distributed"
Bukhari 1:246-247, hadith # 413

Building the prophet's mosque at Madinah: We have seen that the Prophet's camel stopped in the court­yard of Sahl and Suhayl. The Prophet bought the land in order to build his mosque there. While the mosque was being erected, he stayed in the house of Abu Ayyub Khalid ibn Zayd al Ansari. In the construction of the mosque, Muhammad worked with his own hands as did the Muslims, whether Muhajirun or Ansar. When the mosque was completed, they built on one side of it living quarters for the Prophet. These operations did not over­tax anyone, for the two structures were utterly simple and economical. The mosque consisted of a vast courtyard whose four walls were built out of bricks and mud. A part of it was covered with a ceiling made from date trunks and leaves. Another part was devoted to shelter the poor who had no home at all. The mosque was not lit during the night except for an hour at the time of the night prayer. At that time some straw was burned for light. Thus it continued to be for nine years, after which lamps were attached to the tree trunks on which stood the ceiling. The living quarters of the Prophet were no more luxurious than the mosque although they had to be more closed in order to give a measure of privacy. ( Muhammad pp 174-175 )

Digging the trench: Salman al Farisi, who knew far more of the techniques of warfare than was common in the Peninsula, advised the digging of a dry moat around Madinah and the fortification of its buildings within. The Muslims hurried to implement this counsel. The moat was dug and the Prophet. May God's peace and blessing be upon him worked with his hands alongside his companions lifting the dirt, encouraging the Muslim workers and exhorting everyone to multiply his effort. Ali the Muslims picked up their digging utensils, their picks and shovels, and borrowed more tools from the Qurayzah Jews who remained true to their covenant with Muhammad. With tremendous effort and exertion, the whole moat was dug in six days. At the same time, the walls of the buildings on the perimeter of the city facing the enemy were also reinforced, their inhabitants were evacuated and the buildings were reserved for military use. The women and children were removed to the interior and placed within fortified walls. Rocks were gathered and placed on the inner side of the moat for use as possible projectiles against the enemy if the need arose. ( Muhammad pp 303 )

Building of Kufah: According to Muhammad b. 'Abdallah b. Safwan-Umayyah b. Khalid-Abu 'Awanah-Husayn b. 'Abd al‑Rahman: When, on the day of Jalula', the enemy had been defeated, Sa'd recalled the army. When 'Ammar b. Yasir had arrived, he left with the forces for al‑Mada'in. But they did not like it there. 'Ammar asked, "Do the camels thrive in this place?" "No," was the answer, "because of the mosquitoes." 'Ammar commented, "'Umar once said that Arab tribesmen won't be healthy in a region in which their camels do not thrive." He went on: Therefore 'Ammar de­parted with the army and in the end settled in al‑Kufah.

When ,a d had settled in al‑Kufah, he wrote to 'Umar saying, "I have taken up residence on a site covered with pebbles, it is situated between al-­Hirah and the Euphrates, one side borders on dry land, the other borders on the water. Dry as well as tender thistles abound there. I have left a free choice to the Muslims in al‑Mada'in; those who have preferred to stay on in the latter, I have left behind there as a garrison. Thus a number of people from different clans have remained (in al‑Mada'in), the majority of them being from the Banu Abs." According to al‑Sari-Shu'ayb-Sayf-Muhammad, Tal­hah, 'Amr, Sa'id and al‑Muhallab: When the people destined for al­-Kufah had arrived there, and the people destined to populate al­-Basrah had settled there, they formed themselves into 'irafat (to find out who was missing) and whoever they had lost track of was thus returned to them.

Then the people of al‑Kufah asked permission to use reeds as building material. The people of al‑Basrah put in the same re­quest, whereupon 'Umar said, "Living in an army camp is easier for you to mount your military operations from and is more con­venient, but I do not like to disagree with you; what is this reed anyway?" They answered, "It is like 'ikrish (i.e. flax), when it is watered it puts forth stems and produces reeds." Umar replied, 'You do what you think best." Thus the people of the two gar­rison cities used reeds as building material. Then fires occurred in al‑Kufah, as well as in al‑Basrah, the most vehement one occur­ring in the former. Eighty roof structures were destroyed, not a single stem of reed being spared. That was in the month Shaw­wal, the people never stopped talking about it. Sa'd dispatched a few of the victims of those fires to 'Umar to try and obtain the latter's permission to use bricks for building. Thus they approached 'Umar with the news about the fire and what losses they had incurred. No detail was left unmentioned; they did not touch on anything without asking his advice. Umar said, "Go ahead but let nobody build more than three rooms for himself and do not let one build higher houses than the other. If you adhere to what is generally recognized as proper, you will thrive.' With that advice, the delegation returned to al‑Kufah. Umar wrote a letter containing similar advice to Utbah and the people of al­Basrah. The supervision over the settling of the inhabitants of al­Kufah lay in the hands of Abu al‑Hayyaj b. Malik, while the same task in respect of the inhabitants of al‑Basrah was undertaken by Asim b. al‑Dulaf Abu al‑Jarba'.

They continued: 'Umar had enjoined the delegation to carry out what he had said, and he ordered the people (in Iraq) not to con­struct buildings that were higher than the "norm." "But what is this 'norm'?" they had asked. "The 'norm,"' 'Umar said, "is that which keeps you well away from wastefulness but, at the same time, won't make you lose sight of what you are aiming at."

According to al‑San--Shu'ayb--Sayf--Muhammad, Talhah, al-­Muhallab, Amr and Sa'id: When they had agreed on the building plan of al‑Kufah, Sa'd sent a message to Abu al‑Hayyaj and in­formed him of Umar's letter containing instructions for the roads. 'Umar had ordered that (main) thoroughfares of forty cubits (in width) be planned. In between these there should be (other) roads each thirty cubits wide, and between the former and the latter (again others) twenty cubits wide; finally, the side al­leys should be seven cubits wide, no passageway should be nar­rower than that. The plots of land had to measure sixty cubits (square?) except the one assigned to the Banu Dabbah. The people who had insight in those matters assembled to carry out measurements, until Abu al‑Hayyaj divided up all the available space among them, when they had decided on a certain plot.
The first thing to be marked out in al‑Kufah and that was subse­quently erected, when they had finally decided to make a begin­ning with building, was the mosque. It was situated in what is now the market area of the soap manufacturers and date sellers. Its ground plan was traced out. Then a man stationed himself in the center of this ground plan. He was an archer of prodigious strength He shot lone arrow) to his right and ordered that anyone who wanted could start building for his own beyond where the arrow had landed. (Then he did the same with an arrow that he shot to the left) Next he shot an arrow straight ahead of him and one in the opposite direction and ordered that anyone who wanted could start building for himself beyond where these two arrows had landed. Thus they left a square for the mosque that the people could enter from all sides. Over its front part, a roof structure was built, that had no (walls at) either side, nor at the front or back. The whole square was meant for the people to congregate in, but in a way that they (need) not stand packed. In the same manner, other mosques were laid out, except the masjid al‑haram; in those days they did not try to emulate that out of respect for its holiness. The roof structure of al‑Kufah's mosque measured two hundred cubits in width supported by columns of marble. Its ceiling, resembling the ceilings in Byzantine churches, was (taken from a palace formerly belonging) to the Persian kings. They marked (the outer perimeter of) the congregation area by means of a ditch, lest anyone should inadvertently and boldly embark on building inside that perimeter for his own. They built a house for Sa'd, separated from the mosque by a nar­row alley of two hundred cubits (in length). The treasure chambers were incorporated in this house. It is the present‑day citadel of al‑Kufah. Ruzbih (b. Buzurgumihr) built it for Sa'd out of baked bricks previously used in buildings of the Persian kings in al‑Hirah.

North of the congregation area five main thoroughfares branched out, from the south side four such thoroughfares branched out, while from the east and the west (sides) three such roads were planned. All these roads were marked out (by Sa'd). North of the congregation area, adjacent to it, he settled Sulaym and Thaqif along two roads, Hamdan along another road, Bajilah along an­other and Taym al‑Lat as well as Taghlib along yet another road South of the congregation area he settled Banu Asad along one road, with another road separating them from Nakha', who in turn were separated from Kindah by another, while the latter were separated from al‑Azd by yet another road. East of the congregation area he settled the Ansar and Muzaynah along one road, Tamim and Muharib along another, and Asad and 'Amir along yet another. Finally, west of the congregation area he settled Bajalah and Bajlah along one road, Jadilah as well as various groups of mixed origin along another, and Juhaynah as well as other groups of mixed origin along yet another. Thus, all those who lived right next to the congregation area as well as all the other people were housed between (the main thoroughfares) and beyond them, the entire territory having been divided up into plots. These, then, were the main thoroughfares; they also built narrower ones that some­times would run parallel with the former, then merge with them, and yet others that did not merge with the main roads. These last­ mentioned roads, however, were less wide. The dwelling places were found in the space beyond and in between these roads. All the roads and paths began at the congregation area and, right there, he settled the "tenths", into which the veterans of the battles preceding al‑Qadisiyyah and those of al‑Qadisiyyah and its aftermath I had earlier been divided. For those warriors who were at the time manning the border garrisons and that of al‑Mawsil, he held various plots ready until they themselves might come to them. When the first and second waves of newcomers joined the Arab warriors (in al‑Kufah) and swamped them, the people found their plots too cramped. Those groups whose newcomers were particularly numerous, went out and joined them (i.e. outside al‑Kufah)/ vacating the plots they had occupied, while those groups whose newcomers were few in number, settled those--since they were only few in number--in the homesteads of those who had gone to join their newcomers i.e. outside al‑Kufah) if the latter had been living next door. If that had not been the case, those staying behind chose for themselves more cramped quarters, thus accom­modating their newcomers. The congregation area remained in this state during the entire period of 'Umar's reign, the tribesmen not coveting it. There was nothing there but the mosque, the citadel and the markets, which were devoid of buildings or even markings If or buildings). 'Umar had said, "Markets are to be orga­nized on the basis of the norms valid for mosques: he who gets to a certain place first, has sole rights to it, until he vacates it to go home or as the case may be until he has sold all his wares." For every newcomer they prepared "reception" camps,254 everyone arriving there being treated on a basis of equality. Those quarters today are the dwelling places of the Banu al‑Bakka'. (The new­comers stayed there) until they came to Abu al‑Hayyaj so that he might attend to them by assigning plots to them where they wanted.

In the plot destined for that purpose, Sa'd built a citadel facing the spot where the mihrab of the mosque of al‑Kufah is today. He built it and incorporated the treasury in it. He himself lived right next to it. Then, (somewhat later, robbers) dug a tunnel to the treasure chamber and stole from its contents. Sa d notified Umar of this by letter describing to him the layout of the governor's residence and the treasure chambers vis‑a‑vis the congregation area as situated north of the building. 'Umar replied, "Move the spot where you actually perform the prayer ritual to a place as close as possible to the building housing the treasure chambers; in so doing, you make it the direction for prayer. For in the mosque there are always people present, day and night, they will act as guards of what is also their treasure." Thus the place where the prayer ritual was performed was brought closer (facing the treasure chambers) and then Sa'd set about building it. A dihqan from the people of Hamadhan, called Ruzbih b. Buzurgumihr, said to him, "I shall build it for you, and I shall also build a citadel for you; I shall make some sort of connection between the one and the other so that they constitute one and the same building. " Thus he planned the citadel of al‑Kufah according to a well‑considered design. Then Ruzbih commenced building it from baked bricks taken from the ruin of a citadel the Persian kings used to have in the neighborhood of al‑HIrah, which today is still in its place. Sa'd did not allow this to continue, however. He built the mosque facing the treasure chambers, with the entire length of the citadel being situated to the right of that side of the mosque facing south. Then he extended it to the right, up to the far end of the Square of 'Ali b. Abi Talib with this square as the prayer direction. Then he extended it yet some more so that the prayer direction of the mosque encompassed the whole square as well as the right side of the citadel.

The building was supported by pillars made of marble origi­nally from Christian churches belonging to the king. (This roof structure) had no walls, a situation that lasted until the building (complete with walls), as it is today, was constructed in the time Of Muawiyah b. Abi Sufyan at the hands of Ziyad (his adopted brother and governor of Iraq). When Ziyad set out to construct it, he invited several architects who were born in the Jahiliyyah to come to him. He described to them the location of the mosque, its size and how high he wanted it to reach up into the air, saying, "I want something higher than anything I have ever heard de­scribed." Then a certain architect, who had previously been in the service of the king, said to him, "This can only be done when supported by pillars made from blocks of stone quarried at Ah­waz; these blocks have to be pierced and hollowed out, then filled with lead and (held together by) iron bars, so as to enable you to raise the pillars made of these blocks thirty cubits into the air. Then you build a roof over them and, to grant (the whole struc­ture) extra solidity, you build walls on all sides (i.e., supporting the edges of that roof structure).'' Ziyad answered, "This is a description of a structure about which I used to have inward discussions that I have never been able to settle."

Sa'd provided the gate of the citadel with a lock. The reason for this was that the markets used to be held nearby right in front of Sa'd's living quarters, the tumult being so deafening as to prevent Sa'd from conducting a normal conversation. When the citadel was built, people began to ascribe things to him he had never said. Thus they alleged that Sa d had said (on one occasion), "Stop that terrible noise!" News of this reached 'Umar, and also that the people were calling it "Sa'd's citadel." So he called Muhammad b. Maslamah and sent him to al‑Kufah, saying, "Make for the citadel and burn down that gate, then return to me forthwith." Muhammad b. Maslamah departed and journeyed until he arrived
in al‑Kufah. He bought some firewood, brought it to the citadel and burned down its gate. Someone went to Sa'd and told him what had happened. Sa'd said, "This must be a messenger sent here for this very purpose." So he dispatched someone to find out who it was. It was none but Muhammad b. Maslamah! Imme­diately, Sa'd sent a message inviting him inside. But he refused. Then Sa'd came outside and invited him in, offering him hospi­tality. But he refused again. Next Sa'd offered to bear the expenses of the man's staying on in al‑Kufah, but he would not hear of it. Instead he handed Sa'd a letter from 'Umar that read, "It has come to my notice that you have built a citadel and that you have taken possession of it as your personal fortress, it being called 'Sa'd's citadel.' You have even made a gate separating you from the peo­ple! However, it is not your property; have you gone insane? Go and find yourself a place to live near the treasure chambers and lock that (if you insist), but don't have a gate in the citadel preventing the people from entering it and depriving them of their right to sit freely with you in counsel even at the time when you choose to leave your quarters." Sa'd swore to Muhammad b. Mas­lamah that he had not said what the people had imputed to him. So, instantly, Muhammad b. Maslamah set out on his return journey. When, in the vicinity of Medina, his provisions had run out, he had to still his hunger with what bark of trees he could find. Suffering from indigestion, he finally approached 'Umar and told him all that had happened. 'Umar asked, "Did you not take anything from Sa'd for me?" Muhammad answered, "If you had wanted that, you should have (said so in the) letter you gave me for him, or you should have given me leave to use my own judg­ment in this matter." Whereupon 'Umar said, "The most sagacious man is he who displays his own initiative, when he has no directives from his superior to fall back on, or who, without holding back, gives expression to his own views." Then Muham­mad b. Maslamah told 'Umar of the oath Sa d had sworn and what he had said (on that occasion). Believing Sa'd to be sincere, 'Umar said, "He is surely more veracious than those who informed him or those who told me (all about this)."

Building of Basrah: "According to Muhammad b Bashshar-Safwan..sahib al furat"
Tabari 12:163 …. According to Muhammad b. Bashshar--Safwan b. 'Isa al‑Zuhn-- 'Amr b. 'Isa Abu Na'amah al‑'Adawl--Khalid b. 'Umayr and Shu­waysh Abu al‑Ruqqad: 'Umar b. al‑Khattab dispatched 'Utbah b. Ghazwan and said to him: "Set out, you and those who are with you. When you reach the farthest part of the Arab land and the closest part of the non‑Arab land, then halt." They marched out. When they reached al‑Mirbad, they found soft stones (kadhdhan) and said: "What are these soft stones (al‑basrah)? Then they moved on and reached a place in front of a small bridge. There were tall grass and sprouting reeds. They said: "This is the place where you were ordered (to halt)," so they halted short of [crossing into the territory of] the governor of the city of al‑Furat (sahib al-furat)….. "..He ordered them to dig a canal...drinking water to Basrah" Tabari 12:165 … He ordered them to dig a canal through which water could be made to flow from the Tigris, so they dug a canal for drinking water to al‑Basrah.


Identify factors of successful implementation in the cases that you have studied

Identify stages of implementation in the cases that you have studied

Think of a project that you have been involved or one you are planning to undertake in the field of education. Complete the following GANTT chart. You may not know all the information and may have to estimate


                                    0          1          2          3          4          5

Think of a project that you have been involved or one you are planning to undertake. Complete the following GANTT chart. You may not know all the information and may have to estimate

ACTIVITY     ACTIVITY                 PRECEDING             ESTIMATED
REF No.         DESCRIPTION          ACTIVITY                 DURATION


Using the information from the table above complete the following PERT chart

                                    *1                                            *6        *8END
            *START                                 *4                   
                                    *2                                *7

·        Accidents
·        Mistakes
·        Creativity
·        Flexibility
·        Communication
·        Coordination
·        Automatic implementation

Conception Stage
            Define Objectives
            Define Deadlines

            Gather Data
            Take Decisions



·        Objectives
·        Scope of work
·        Specifications
·        Stakeholders
·        Logical diagram of key stages
·        Work break-down for key stages
·        Milestone schedule
·        Gantt chart
·        Netwrok chart
·        Budget (approved and operational)


Writings of Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr

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