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Presented at the Ministry of Water and Electricity Riyadh on 24th February 2010 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard)

  • Conceptual aspects of project implementation
  • Practical aspects of project implementation

  • Implementation as a management function
  • Components of Implementation
  • Start and end of implementation
  • Civilization is implementation of ideas
  • Projects failure due to poor implementation
  • Reasons for things not getting done:
  • Action deficiency
  • Reliance on Allah
  • Implementation in the plan
  • Implementation team
  • Decisions in implementation
  • Paper work and bureaucracy
  • Equilibrium between effectiveness vs efficiency
  • Requirements for successful implementation
  • Project cycle
  • Stages of implementation:
  • Information and communication
  • Charting project progress:
  • Managing multiple priorities
  • Time use:
  • Auditing deadline crises:
  • Contingencies
  • Routine and procedures
  • Pro-activity
  • Simplicity
  • Practicality and pragmatism
  • Intuition from experience
  • Incremental approach
  • Risk, perfectionism, uncertainty
  • Records
  • Human skills
  • Delegation
  • Communication
  • Negotiation
  • Termination

  • Actions must be consistent with words (credible)
  • Praise for work done by others
  • Completing tasks
  • Continuity of work
  • Short but perfect
  • Gradual requests in getting compliance
  • Some correct actions to be postponed if they will be misunderstood
  • Continuity of work
  • Best of work is what is continuous even if little
  • Best of work is what is continuous; do what you can
  • Building the prophet's mosque at Madinah
  • Digging the trench
  • Building of Kufah
  • Building of Basrah:

  • Successful implementation
  • Stages of implementation
  • Control of project implementation: gantt chart
  • Control of project implementation: pert/cm table
  • Causes of failure in implementation
  • Simulated project implementation
  • Use of routines in implementation
  • Project leader check list
  • Documentation for project implementation


Implementation as a management function:
  • Implementation is an important management function that is often neglected.

Components of Implementation
  • Inputs
  • Transformation
  • Outputs (products or services)

Start and end of implementation
  • You start with inputs and transform them into outputs. Implementation is the process of transformation. Implementation thus has a beginning and an end.
  • Implementation involves breaking down the work into manageable steps or tasks, costing, scheduling, follow-up, control.
  • Successful implementation is an art that is learned through experience.

Civilization is implementation of ideas:
  • All civilizations are built on ideas that get implemented.
  • Ideas that are not put into practice are worth very little.
  • Many good ideas and decisions never see the light of the day because of inaction.

Projects failure due to poor implementation:
  • In our experience many group projects do not succeed not for lack of insight or necessary resources but because of missing or poor implementation.

Reasons for things not getting done:
  • Vision not clear
  • Goals too big
  • Task unpleasant
  • Indecision, lack of confidence
  • Poor planning
  • Time not enough
  • Distractions

Action deficiency
  • In many cases, the problem is not poor implementation but lack of inertia and momentum to do something.
  • Lack of vision, purpose, objectives, and self confidence are causes of inertia.
  • Failure to carry out things that have to be done leads to loss of credibility. Your actions must be consistent with your words. Do not tell others to do things that you yourself fail to do.
  • Action deficiency disease sometimes manifests as an attempt to claim credit for work not done. The claim may be purely fabricated fantasies or taking credit for work done by others.
  • Being overwhelmed by too many projects may result in inaction. You succeed by trying, there is no movement without trying. The more you try to exert yourself, the more likely is the success.
  • Take action to make sure that what you want to happen will actually happen.
  • Never wait for anything to happen on its own.
  • Do not procrastinate when action is what is called for.

Reliance on Allah:
  • When you have exerted your maximum human effort in planning and preparation
  • Act and rely on Allah for the results.

Implementation in the plan:
  • The implementation strategy must be built in the action plan.

Implementation team:
  • An implementation team must be set for each project.
  • Successful implementation requires good team management skills.
  • You must learn dealing with different personalities.

Decisions in implementation:
  • The implementor has to make decisions constantly.
  • Some are long-term strategic decisions.
  • Others are tactical/operational covering a period of 1 year.
  • Others are day-to-day operational decisions.

Paper work and bureaucracy:
  • Paper-work and bureaucracy are enemies of successful implementation if overused.

Equilibrium between effectiveness vs efficiency:
  • Both effectiveness (achieving targets) and efficiency (doing things right at minimum cost) are important in implementation.
  • Successful implementation strikes due balance between the two.

Requirements for successful implementation:
  • A manager must have vision, good planning, follow-up and follow-through for successful implementation.
  • Successful implementation requires, in addition,  proper knowledge and skill, clear well written goals (specific, flexible, realistic), clear priorities, a clear plan of action, and emphasis on quality control (QC), quality assurance (QA) and quality improvement (QI).

Project cycle:
  • Project implementation proceeds through stages, also called the project planning and control cycle.
  • A project plan is the starting point.
  • Tasks are then defined and are assigned to persons who will implement them.
  • Task completion is assured by follow-up and control.

Stages of implementation:
  • Plan: Preparation before start of implementation is everything. Take time to prepare well, work out the details, and anticipate problems before commencement.
  • Mobilization of resources: Plan your resources, know where they are, how to get to them, and how to use them. Cost planning must be exact to avoid cost overruns, a usual phenomenon in inefficient projects. A skill matrix should be drawn up for each project
  • Definition of tasks: structured? :yes/no - skill variety - task identity (complete job) - task significance - autonomy - feedback - task interdependence
  • Task assignments: explain what to do - explain where assignee fits in the overall picture - give a time frame - be considerate -give credit
  • Assure task completion: get focused - cut through clutter - understand your priorities - avoid interruptions -budget time for task

Information and communication:
  • Make sure that all concerned are in the information loop.
  • Set up and use communication channels.
  • Project status reports must be timely, informative and written in a problem-solving format.

Charting project progress:
  • Graphic representation is effective when used to display project activities, duration of the various tasks, and an indication of the sequence of activities that are most critical at the time of project completion (the critical path).
  • PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technic) involves deciding what functions should be performed and what activities will be necessary as well as estimating the resources needed.
  • Continuous monitoring helps you identify errors and take preventive or corrective action. In some cases the baseline plan may have to be changed.
  • Modern computer technology can be used to make project monitoring and control more timely and more efficient.

Managing multiple priorities:
  • In many projects the implementor will have to deal with multiple priorities successfully. Budgets get squeezed and time is tight.
  • The implementor must be on top of all the different schedules and work-loads.

Time use:
  • Timing and sequencing of tasks and activities is important. Tasks well done but in the wrong sequence can wreak havoc on the whole project.
  • Tasks once started must be completed. Work must be continuous; a bust of activity followed by long periods of inactivity is a recipe for failure. It is better to do little at a time, do it well, and do it all the time.

Auditing deadline crises:
  • Deadlines must be kept. Whenever a deadline is not reached or when there is a deadline crisis in project implementation, an audit must be carried out to find the causes and learn from the experience for the benefit of future projects.
  • The following questions must be asked of every deadline crisis:
    • What did I do to create the crisis?
    • What was the distraction?
    • How was time wasted?
    • Will problems recur?
    • What was the role of conflict?
    • What did I learn?

·                     Each situation requires a specific approach, we can not use a manual
·         Emergency situations do occur. They may be occasional or may occur at expected milestones.
·         Anticipation of as many problem as possible and preparing contingency plans for them is the secret of successful Implementation.
·         You must always have well-worked out contingency plans to deal with the usual problems that usually occur.
·         Despite the best of anticipatory planning surprises always occur. Successful implementors requires highly developed skills in improvising to deal with unexpected surprises.

Routine and procedures
  • Implementation routines have advantages and disadvantages. You must know when to use a routine. Application should be automatically triggered by the relevant situation. The implementor must understand the routine in order to use it well.
  • Implementation is not time for thinking about actions and their motivations. There is no time to think about alternative courses of action. All thought must be about implementing the set plan.
  • Thinking, planning, and information collection must finally reach a point of no return and must be followed by action.
  • Knowledge and information do not lead automatically to action. Many knowledgeable and creative people are not effective. Initiative, the ability to make choices are necessary for action.

  • Project management is a pro-active effort.
  • If you wait for things to happen and you only react you will fail very rapidly.

  • Simplicity is a key to successful implementation.
  • Any procedure that requires involved explanation is likely to fail.
  • Actions must be simple, doable and with a potential to be effective.

Practicality and pragmatism:
  • A successful implementor is both practical and pragmatic.
  • Pragmatism means being in tune with the environment and pursuing the art of the possible.
  • Sometimes the word pragmatic takes on a negative coloration to mean lack of principles. You can be pragmatic while being principled and walking in the moral lane. You will need to remember that the end never justifies the means.
  • Project implementation requires a lot of pragmatism and being practical. Everything is possible. You have to take the best action in a given situation.

Intuition from experience:
  • After a lot of implementation experience you may develop your intuition to the point that you can guess right and be "street smart"

Incremental approach:
  • Incrementalism is an implementation method appropriate for situations with uncertain information.
  • You assess the situation as you go along and do what is possible and is practical.

Risk, perfectionism, uncertainty:
  • In order to be effective we have to accept some degree of risk.
  • Trying to play safe and be perfect may destroy initiative for action.

  • You must maintain a project diary in which all significant project events are written.
  • Good documentation reduces errors and misunderstandings.

Human skills:
  • Projects involve managing people.
  • Interpersonal relations are crucial.

  • You have to delegate many of the responsibilities in order to have time to carry out leadership functions such as planning and control.

  • Good communication is needed.
  • You must make sure that instructions are understood and are carried out in time.

  • Negotiation ability is necessary.
  • You have to negotiate win-win with many people to obtain cooperatio and finish the project

  • The terminal stages of the project are as important as the start.
  • You must plan the termination carefully.
  • Fix a termination date in advance and advertize it.
  • Plan for the post-project period.

Actions must be consistent with words (credible): Do you enjoin right conduct on the people, and forget ( To practice it ) yourself. And yet you study the Scripture ? Will you not understand ? Qur'an 2:44

Praise for work done by others: Think not that those who exult in what they have brought about, and love to be praised for what they have not done think not that they can escape the Penalty. For them is a penalty grievous indeed.            Qur'an 3:188

Completing tasks: "Aisha reported the Apostle of Allah ( may peace be upon him ) as saying: Choose such actions as you are capable of performing, for Allah does not grow weary till you do. The acts most pleasing to Allah are those which are done most continuously, even if they amount to little, Whenever he began an action, he would do it continuously"  Abu Daud 1:358, Chapter 468, Hadith # 1363

Continuity of work: "Aisha reported Allah's Messenger ( may peace be upon him ) as saying: The acts most pleasing to Allah are those which are done continuously, even if they are small, and when Aisha did any act she did it continuously"  Muslim 1: 377-378, Chapter 273, Hadith # 1713

Short but perfect: "Narrated Anas : The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) used to pray a short prayer ( in congregation ) but used to offer it in a perfect manner."  Bukhari 1:381, hadith # 674

Gradual requests in getting compliance: "Narrated Ibn Abbas : The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) sent Muadh to Yemen and said, " Invite the people to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I am Allah's Apostle, and if they obey you to do so, then inform them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers in every day and night ( in twenty-four hours ), and if they obey you to do so, then inform them that Allah has made it obligatory for them to pay the Zakat from their property and it is to be taken from the wealthy among them and given to the poor"  Bukhari 2;271-272, hadith # 478

Some correct actions to be postponed if they will be misunderstood: "Narrated Aisha : Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) said to me, " were your people not close to the Pre-Islamic period of ignorance, I would have demolished the Kaba and would have re-built it on its original foundations laid by Abraham ( for Quraish had curtailed its building ), and I would have built a back door too"  Bukhari 2:383, hadith # 655

Continuity of work: "Narrated Aisha : Once the Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) came while a woman was sitting with me. He said, " Who is she? I replied, " She is so and so," and told him about her ( excessive praying. He said disapprovingly, " Do ( good ) deeds which is within your capacity ( without being overtaxed ) as Allah does not get tired ( of giving rewards ) but ( surely ) you will get tired and the best deed ( act of worship ) in the sight of Allah is that which is done regularly"   Bukhari 1:37, chapter 33, hadith # 41

Best of work is what is continuous even if little: "Narrated Aisha : The Prophet used to construct a room with a Hasir at night in order to pray therein, and during the day he used to spread it out and sit on it. The people started coming to the Prophet at night to offer the prayer behind him. When their number increased the Prophet faced them and said, " O people ! Do only those good deeds which you can do, for Allah does not get tired ( of giving reward ) till you get tired, and the best deeds to Allah are the incessant ones though they were few"  Bukhari 7:499, hadith # 752

Best of work is what is continuous; do what you can:       "Narrated Aishah : The Prophet was asked. " What deeds are loved most by Allah? he said. The most regular constant deeds even though they may be few." He added. Don,t take upon yourselves, except the deeds which are within your ability."   Bukhari 8:314, hadith # 472

Building the prophet's mosque at Madina: "Narrated Anas...distributed"
Bukhari 1:246-247, hadith # 413

Building the prophet's mosque at Madinah: We have seen that the Prophet's camel stopped in the court­yard of Sahl and Suhayl. The Prophet bought the land in order to build his mosque there. While the mosque was being erected, he stayed in the house of Abu Ayyub Khalid ibn Zayd al Ansari. In the construction of the mosque, Muhammad worked with his own hands as did the Muslims, whether Muhajirun or Ansar. When the mosque was completed, they built on one side of it living quarters for the Prophet. These operations did not over­tax anyone, for the two structures were utterly simple and economical. The mosque consisted of a vast courtyard whose four walls were built out of bricks and mud. A part of it was covered with a ceiling made from date trunks and leaves. Another part was devoted to shelter the poor who had no home at all. The mosque was not lit during the night except for an hour at the time of the night prayer. At that time some straw was burned for light. Thus it continued to be for nine years, after which lamps were attached to the tree trunks on which stood the ceiling. The living quarters of the Prophet were no more luxurious than the mosque although they had to be more closed in order to give a measure of privacy. ( Muhammad pp 174-175 )

Digging the trench: Salman al Farisi, who knew far more of the techniques of warfare than was common in the Peninsula, advised the digging of a dry moat around Madinah and the fortification of its buildings within. The Muslims hurried to implement this counsel. The moat was dug and the Prophet. May God's peace and blessing be upon him worked with his hands alongside his companions lifting the dirt, encouraging the Muslim workers and exhorting everyone to multiply his effort. Ali the Muslims picked up their digging utensils, their picks and shovels, and borrowed more tools from the Qurayzah Jews who remained true to their covenant with Muhammad. With tremendous effort and exertion, the whole moat was dug in six days. At the same time, the walls of the buildings on the perimeter of the city facing the enemy were also reinforced, their inhabitants were evacuated and the buildings were reserved for military use. The women and children were removed to the interior and placed within fortified walls. Rocks were gathered and placed on the inner side of the moat for use as possible projectiles against the enemy if the need arose. ( Muhammad pp 303 )

Building of Kufah: According to Muhammad b. 'Abdallah b. Safwan-Umayyah b. Khalid-Abu 'Awanah-Husayn b. 'Abd al‑Rahman: When, on the day of Jalula', the enemy had been defeated, Sa'd recalled the army. When 'Ammar b. Yasir had arrived, he left with the forces for al‑Mada'in. But they did not like it there. 'Ammar asked, "Do the camels thrive in this place?" "No," was the answer, "because of the mosquitoes." 'Ammar commented, "'Umar once said that Arab tribesmen won't be healthy in a region in which their camels do not thrive." He went on: Therefore 'Ammar de­parted with the army and in the end settled in al‑Kufah.

When ,a d had settled in al‑Kufah, he wrote to 'Umar saying, "I have taken up residence on a site covered with pebbles, it is situated between al-­Hirah and the Euphrates, one side borders on dry land, the other borders on the water. Dry as well as tender thistles abound there. I have left a free choice to the Muslims in al‑Mada'in; those who have preferred to stay on in the latter, I have left behind there as a garrison. Thus a number of people from different clans have remained (in al‑Mada'in), the majority of them being from the Banu Abs." According to al‑Sari-Shu'ayb-Sayf-Muhammad, Tal­hah, 'Amr, Sa'id and al‑Muhallab: When the people destined for al­-Kufah had arrived there, and the people destined to populate al­-Basrah had settled there, they formed themselves into 'irafat (to find out who was missing) and whoever they had lost track of was thus returned to them.

Then the people of al‑Kufah asked permission to use reeds as building material. The people of al‑Basrah put in the same re­quest, whereupon 'Umar said, "Living in an army camp is easier for you to mount your military operations from and is more con­venient, but I do not like to disagree with you; what is this reed anyway?" They answered, "It is like 'ikrish (i.e. flax), when it is watered it puts forth stems and produces reeds." Umar replied, 'You do what you think best." Thus the people of the two gar­rison cities used reeds as building material. Then fires occurred in al‑Kufah, as well as in al‑Basrah, the most vehement one occur­ring in the former. Eighty roof structures were destroyed, not a single stem of reed being spared. That was in the month Shaw­wal, the people never stopped talking about it. Sa'd dispatched a few of the victims of those fires to 'Umar to try and obtain the latter's permission to use bricks for building. Thus they approached 'Umar with the news about the fire and what losses they had incurred. No detail was left unmentioned; they did not touch on anything without asking his advice. Umar said, "Go ahead but let nobody build more than three rooms for himself and do not let one build higher houses than the other. If you adhere to what is generally recognized as proper, you will thrive.' With that advice, the delegation returned to al‑Kufah. Umar wrote a letter containing similar advice to Utbah and the people of al­Basrah. The supervision over the settling of the inhabitants of al­Kufah lay in the hands of Abu al‑Hayyaj b. Malik, while the same task in respect of the inhabitants of al‑Basrah was undertaken by Asim b. al‑Dulaf Abu al‑Jarba'.

They continued: 'Umar had enjoined the delegation to carry out what he had said, and he ordered the people (in Iraq) not to con­struct buildings that were higher than the "norm." "But what is this 'norm'?" they had asked. "The 'norm,"' 'Umar said, "is that which keeps you well away from wastefulness but, at the same time, won't make you lose sight of what you are aiming at."

According to al‑San--Shu'ayb--Sayf--Muhammad, Talhah, al-­Muhallab, Amr and Sa'id: When they had agreed on the building plan of al‑Kufah, Sa'd sent a message to Abu al‑Hayyaj and in­formed him of Umar's letter containing instructions for the roads. 'Umar had ordered that (main) thoroughfares of forty cubits (in width) be planned. In between these there should be (other) roads each thirty cubits wide, and between the former and the latter (again others) twenty cubits wide; finally, the side al­leys should be seven cubits wide, no passageway should be nar­rower than that. The plots of land had to measure sixty cubits (square?) except the one assigned to the Banu Dabbah. The people who had insight in those matters assembled to carry out measurements, until Abu al‑Hayyaj divided up all the available space among them, when they had decided on a certain plot.
The first thing to be marked out in al‑Kufah and that was subse­quently erected, when they had finally decided to make a begin­ning with building, was the mosque. It was situated in what is now the market area of the soap manufacturers and date sellers. Its ground plan was traced out. Then a man stationed himself in the center of this ground plan. He was an archer of prodigious strength He shot lone arrow) to his right and ordered that anyone who wanted could start building for his own beyond where the arrow had landed. (Then he did the same with an arrow that he shot to the left) Next he shot an arrow straight ahead of him and one in the opposite direction and ordered that anyone who wanted could start building for himself beyond where these two arrows had landed. Thus they left a square for the mosque that the people could enter from all sides. Over its front part, a roof structure was built, that had no (walls at) either side, nor at the front or back. The whole square was meant for the people to congregate in, but in a way that they (need) not stand packed. In the same manner, other mosques were laid out, except the masjid al‑haram; in those days they did not try to emulate that out of respect for its holiness. The roof structure of al‑Kufah's mosque measured two hundred cubits in width supported by columns of marble. Its ceiling, resembling the ceilings in Byzantine churches, was (taken from a palace formerly belonging) to the Persian kings. They marked (the outer perimeter of) the congregation area by means of a ditch, lest anyone should inadvertently and boldly embark on building inside that perimeter for his own. They built a house for Sa'd, separated from the mosque by a nar­row alley of two hundred cubits (in length). The treasure chambers were incorporated in this house. It is the present‑day citadel of al‑Kufah. Ruzbih (b. Buzurgumihr) built it for Sa'd out of baked bricks previously used in buildings of the Persian kings in al‑Hirah.

North of the congregation area five main thoroughfares branched out, from the south side four such thoroughfares branched out, while from the east and the west (sides) three such roads were planned. All these roads were marked out (by Sa'd). North of the congregation area, adjacent to it, he settled Sulaym and Thaqif along two roads, Hamdan along another road, Bajilah along an­other and Taym al‑Lat as well as Taghlib along yet another road South of the congregation area he settled Banu Asad along one road, with another road separating them from Nakha', who in turn were separated from Kindah by another, while the latter were separated from al‑Azd by yet another road. East of the congregation area he settled the Ansar and Muzaynah along one road, Tamim and Muharib along another, and Asad and 'Amir along yet another. Finally, west of the congregation area he settled Bajalah and Bajlah along one road, Jadilah as well as various groups of mixed origin along another, and Juhaynah as well as other groups of mixed origin along yet another. Thus, all those who lived right next to the congregation area as well as all the other people were housed between (the main thoroughfares) and beyond them, the entire territory having been divided up into plots. These, then, were the main thoroughfares; they also built narrower ones that some­times would run parallel with the former, then merge with them, and yet others that did not merge with the main roads. These last­ mentioned roads, however, were less wide. The dwelling places were found in the space beyond and in between these roads. All the roads and paths began at the congregation area and, right there, he settled the "tenths", into which the veterans of the battles preceding al‑Qadisiyyah and those of al‑Qadisiyyah and its aftermath I had earlier been divided. For those warriors who were at the time manning the border garrisons and that of al‑Mawsil, he held various plots ready until they themselves might come to them. When the first and second waves of newcomers joined the Arab warriors (in al‑Kufah) and swamped them, the people found their plots too cramped. Those groups whose newcomers were particularly numerous, went out and joined them (i.e. outside al‑Kufah)/ vacating the plots they had occupied, while those groups whose newcomers were few in number, settled those--since they were only few in number--in the homesteads of those who had gone to join their newcomers i.e. outside al‑Kufah) if the latter had been living next door. If that had not been the case, those staying behind chose for themselves more cramped quarters, thus accom­modating their newcomers. The congregation area remained in this state during the entire period of 'Umar's reign, the tribesmen not coveting it. There was nothing there but the mosque, the citadel and the markets, which were devoid of buildings or even markings If or buildings). 'Umar had said, "Markets are to be orga­nized on the basis of the norms valid for mosques: he who gets to a certain place first, has sole rights to it, until he vacates it to go home or as the case may be until he has sold all his wares." For every newcomer they prepared "reception" camps,254 everyone arriving there being treated on a basis of equality. Those quarters today are the dwelling places of the Banu al‑Bakka'. (The new­comers stayed there) until they came to Abu al‑Hayyaj so that he might attend to them by assigning plots to them where they wanted.

In the plot destined for that purpose, Sa'd built a citadel facing the spot where the mihrab of the mosque of al‑Kufah is today. He built it and incorporated the treasury in it. He himself lived right next to it. Then, (somewhat later, robbers) dug a tunnel to the treasure chamber and stole from its contents. Sa d notified Umar of this by letter describing to him the layout of the governor's residence and the treasure chambers vis‑a‑vis the congregatiOn area as situated north of the building. 'Umar replied, "Move the spot where you actually perform the prayer ritual to a place as close as possible to the building housing the treasure chambers; in so doing, you make it the direction for prayer. For in the mosque there are always people present, day and night, they will act as guards of what is also their treasure." Thus the place where the prayer ritual was performed was brought closer (facing the treasure chambers) and then Sa'd set about building it. A dihqan from the people of Hamadhan, called Ruzbih b. Buzurgumihr, said to him, "I shall build it for you, and I shall also build a citadel for you; I shall make some sort of connection between the one and the other so that they constitute one and the same building. " Thus he planned the citadel of al‑Kufah according to a well‑considered design. Then Ruzbih commenced building it from baked bricks taken from the ruin of a citadel the Persian kings used to have in the neighborhood of al‑HIrah, which today is still in its place. Sa'd did not allow this to continue, however. He built the mosque facing the treasure chambers, with the entire length of the citadel being situated to the right of that side of the mosque facing south. Then he extended it to the right, up to the far end of the Square of 'Ali b. Abi Talib with this square as the prayer direction. Then he extended it yet some more so that the prayer direction of the mosque encompassed the whole square as well as the right side of the citadel.

The building was supported by pillars made of marble origi­nally from Christian churches belonging to the king. (This roof structure) had no walls, a situation that lasted until the building (complete with walls), as it is today, was constructed in the time Of Muawiyah b. Abi Sufyan at the hands of Ziyad (his adopted brother and governor of Iraq). When Ziyad set out to construct it, he invited several architects who were born in the Jahiliyyah to come to him. He described to them the location of the mosque, its size and how high he wanted it to reach up into the air, saying, "I want something higher than anything I have ever heard de­scribed." Then a certain architect, who had previously been in the service of the king, said to him, "This can only be done when supported by pillars made from blocks of stone quarried at Ah­waz; these blocks have to be pierced and hollowed out, then filled with lead and (held together by) iron bars, so as to enable you to raise the pillars made of these blocks thirty cubits into the air. Then you build a roof over them and, to grant (the whole struc­ture) extra solidity, you build walls on all sides (i.e., supporting the edges of that roof structure).'' Ziyad answered, "This is a description of a structure about which I used to have inward discussions that I have never been able to settle."

Sa'd provided the gate of the citadel with a lock. The reason for this was that the markets used to be held nearby right in front of Sa'd's living quarters, the tumult being so deafening as to prevent Sa'd from conducting a normal conversation. When the citadel was built, people began to ascribe things to him he had never said. Thus they alleged that Sa d had said (on one occasion), "Stop that terrible noise!" News of this reached 'Umar, and also that the people were calling it "Sa'd's citadel." So he called Muhammad b. Maslamah and sent him to al‑Kufah, saying, "Make for the citadel and burn down that gate, then return to me forthwith." Muhammad b. Maslamah departed and journeyed until he arrived
in al‑Kufah. He bought some firewood, brought it to the citadel and burned down its gate. Someone went to Sa'd and told him what had happened. Sa'd said, "This must be a messenger sent here for this very purpose." So he dispatched someone to find out who it was. It was none but Muhammad b. Maslamah! Imme­diately, Sa'd sent a message inviting him inside. But he refused. Then Sa'd came outside and invited him in, offering him hospi­tality. But he refused again. Next Sa'd offered to bear the expenses of the man's staying on in al‑Kufah, but he would not hear of it. Instead he handed Sa'd a letter from 'Umar that read, "It has come to my notice that you have built a citadel and that you have taken possession of it as your personal fortress, it being called 'Sa'd's citadel.' You have even made a gate separating you from the peo­ple! However, it is not your property; have you gone insane? Go and find yourself a place to live near the treasure chambers and lock that (if you insist), but don't have a gate in the citadel preventing the people from entering it and depriving them of their right to sit freely with you in counsel even at the time when you choose to leave your quarters." Sa'd swore to Muhammad b. Mas­lamah that he had not said what the people had imputed to him. So, instantly, Muhammad b. Maslamah set out on his return journey. When, in the vicinity of Medina, his provisions had run out, he had to still his hunger with what bark of trees he could find. Suffering from indigestion, he finally approached 'Umar and told him all that had happened. 'Umar asked, "Did you not take anything from Sa'd for me?" Muhammad answered, "If you had wanted that, you should have (said so in the) letter you gave me for him, or you should have given me leave to use my own judg­ment in this matter." Whereupon 'Umar said, "The most sagacious man is he who displays his own initiative, when he has no directives from his superior to fall back on, or who, without holding back, gives expression to his own views." Then Muham­mad b. Maslamah told 'Umar of the oath Sa d had sworn and what he had said (on that occasion). Believing Sa'd to be sincere, 'Umar said, "He is surely more veracious than those who informed him or those who told me (all about this)."

Building of Basrah: "According to Muhammad b Bashshar-Safwan..sahib al furat"
Tabari 12:163 …. According to Muhammad b. Bashshar--Safwan b. 'Isa al‑Zuhn-- 'Amr b. 'Isa Abu Na'amah al‑'Adawl--Khalid b. 'Umayr and Shu­waysh Abu al‑Ruqqad: 'Umar b. al‑Khattab dispatched 'Utbah b. Ghazwan and said to him: "Set out, you and those who are with you. When you reach the farthest part of the Arab land and the closest part of the non‑Arab land, then halt." They marched out. When they reached al‑Mirbad, they found soft stones (kadhdhan) and said: "What are these soft stones (al‑basrah)? Then they moved on and reached a place in front of a small bridge. There were tall grass and sprouting reeds. They said: "This is the place where you were ordered (to halt)," so they halted short of [crossing into the territory of] the governor of the city of al‑Furat (sahib al-furat)….. "..He ordered them to dig a canal...drinking water to Basrah" Tabari 12:165 … He ordered them to dig a canal through which water could be made to flow from the Tigris, so they dug a canal for drinking water to al‑Basrah.

Identify factors of successful implementation in the cases that you have studied

Identify stages of implementation in the cases that you have studied

Think of a project that you have been involved or one you are planning to undertake in the field of education. Complete the following GANTT chart. You may not know all the information and may have to estimate


                                    0          1          2          3          4          5

Think of a project that you have been involved or one you are planning to undertake. Complete the following GANTT chart. You may not know all the information and may have to estimate

ACTIVITY     ACTIVITY                 PRECEDING             ESTIMATED
REF No.          DESCRIPTION         ACTIVITY                 DURATION


Using the information from the table above complete the following PERT chart

                                    *1                                            *6        *8END
            *START                                  *4                   
                                    *2                                *7

  • Accidents
  • Mistakes
  • Creativity
  • Flexibility
  • Communication
  • Coordination
  • Automatic implementation

Conception Stage
            Define Objectives
            Define Deadlines

            Gather Data
            Take Decisions



  • Objectives
  • Scope of work
  • Specifications
  • Stakeholders
  • Logical diagram of key stages
  • Work break-down for key stages
  • Milestone schedule
  • Gantt chart
  • Netwrok chart
  • Budget (approved and operational)


Writings of Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr

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