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Background material by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. for the Communication Module FOM KFMC 6th and 13th October 2009

1.1 Communication is transfer of information from one communicator to another through the use of symbols. The meaning behind the symbols is interpreted subjectively by the recipient.

1.2 Humans have the most advanced form of communication. They communicate in different languages and in various forms.

1.3 The elements of communication are: the sender, the message, the medium, the receiver, and feedback.

1.4 Six steps are visualized in the linear model of communication: the source, the encoder, the message, the channel, the decoder, and the receiver.

1.5 The functions of communication are: informing, controlling, expressing emotions, and motivating.

2.1 Communication and leadership: Communication is an essential leadership function. Communication failure rapidly leads to leadership and organizational failure.

2.2 Communication in medicine: The physician must be competent in communication to be able to deal with patients, relatives, medical colleagues, and stake-holders outside the medical profession.

Conscious communication is planned and the communicator is aware of the message. Unconscious communication is not planned and the communicator is not aware of the message.

Verbal communication, oral or written, uses words as communication symbols. Non-verbal communication conveys ideas without the use of words.

Non-verbal communication can take the following forms: body language, physical appearance (hair, nails, cleanliness, wardrobe), manner of greeting (voice, hand-shake, smile), image/impressions (public speaking, letters, faxes, behavior in public, behavior in crisis, quality of work delivered).

Communication channels: Communication channels may be personal static such as a letter, impersonal static such as flyers, direct interaction such as face-to-face discussions, and indirect interaction such as a telephone conversation.

Reception of communication: Any communication is not received as it is transmitted. It is perceived instead. Perception is organizing and interpreting incoming information. Perception is selective being influenced by environment, background knowledge, and background attitudes. Thus the same information may elicit different perceptions in different people.

4.1 Man was given speech as a gift from Allah[1]. Humans speak different languages as a sign of Allah’s power and majesty[2]. Communication may be non-verbal[3].

4.2 Communication must be based on objective facts; speculation, dhann, is condemned[4]. Communication should be cross-checked to ensure accuracy[5]. Precise communication is best[6].

4.3 Good argument should be used in communication[7].

4.4 A good voice is needed in communication[8].

4.5 Care must be taken to choose the right word[9]. Only nice words should be used[10]. A good word is sadaqat[11]. It is better to keep quiet than to say a bad word[12]. A good word is enjoined even to those who say bad to you[13]. Laghwu should be avoided[14].

4.6 Examples help promote understanding. The Qur’an has used all types of examples in people’s understanding[15]. Examples are for remembrance[16]. The Qur’an uses parables for illustration[17].

4.7 The receiver of information may understand and benefit more than the transmitter[18]. We should avoid doing or saying what may confuse others[19]. Selective communication may have to be resorted to in order to avoid misunderstanding[20]. A good communicator will anticipate misunderstandings and false assumptions and will take measures to address them before they occur[21]. Asking questions aids understanding[22].

4.7 Some communication is not sincere[23]. Truthfulness is enjoined[24]. Lying darkens the heart[25]. Some words and expressions must be avoided in communication[26]. Allah does not like obscenities, fuhsh & tafahhush[27].

4.8 Some types of communication are good while others are not, al kalimat al tayyibat & al kalimat al khabiithat[28]. The good word, al kalimat al tayyibat[29] is about consciousness of Allah, taqwa al Allah[30] and telling the truth[31]. Remembrance of Allah is ordained during speech, al amr bi dhikr al llaah athnaa al kalaam[32]. The soft word is charity, al kalimat al llayinat sadaqat[33]. The bad word, al kalimat al khabiithat[34] is distortion, tahriif al kalimat[35] or denial of Allah, kalimat al kufr[36].

4.9 Communication should be confined to what is good and moral. One should say good or keep quiet, faliyaqul khayran aw liyasmut[37]. In general silence is preferred, fadhl qillat al kalaam. Being humble and speaking little is a sign of iman[38].

4.10 The methods and manner of the Prophet’s communication are a model for all of us. He spoke clearly in conversations[39]. He also spoke slowly[40]. His speech was precise[41]. He repeated to ensure understanding[42]. The prophet was silent most of the time. When his companions spoke he listened to them.

4.11 There are guidelines for communication in small groups. Conversations must be on good things, khayr[43]. The speaker can ask fore feed-back[44]. No person should be ignored in a conversation[45]. Meeting others should be with a cheerful countenance[46]. Smiling is better than laughing[47]. Smiling is encouraged even with bad people[48]. Emotions can be expressed in a moderate way[49]. Exaggeration in praise is discouraged[50]. Careless talk must be avoided[51]. A personal touch has great impact[52]. Expressions of love to a brother are encouraged[53]. Secret conversations should be avoided because they hurt others psychologically[54]. People hate being ignored in a conversation[55].           

4.12 Muslims are ordained to tell the truth, al amr bi al sidq[56]. Telling a lie is one of the major sins, al kadhib min al kabair[57]. Lying has serious consequences, ‘aaqibat al kadhib[58]. Exaggeration in conversation is forbidden and is a form of lying. Mujamalat is speaking with people in a pleasant way to make them comfortable even if they are people one detests. Mujamalat should however not degenerate to the level of deceptive acting.

4.13 Silence is forbidden if it leads to abandoning speech that is waajib or mustahabb. However silence is waajib if speech will be haram pronouncements. Keeping silent to avoid self-incrimination is preferable to public declaration of sins. If Allah covers a sinner from people’s eyes, he should recourse to repentance. Open broadcasting of sins only serves to encourage others to commit the same sins. Secrets are a trust and should never be revealed in conversations. Generally it is forbidden to speak while in the toilet.

4.14 It is part of good etiquette to pay full attention to a person speaking in a one-to-one communication. Listening should be active and with interest. It is offensive to pretend to listen. Active listening requires sending some message to the speaker that you are listening such as nodding, indicating interest using the eyes, making some comments or sounds, or even asking questions.

4.15 Public speeches must be short[59]. The speaker must have and maintain credibility[60]. Speech and eloquence have an impact likened to magic[61]. There are some etiquettes of a public assembly that must be respected. Late-comers should not inconvenience people who came earlier and sat down[62]. Emotional speech is appropriate for some situations[63]. Body language and gestures help in emphasis[64]. The speaker must be careful not to bore the audience by speaking too much or for too long[65]. A speech can be interrupted for a good reason[66]. The audience should listen attentively. The speaker should answer questions. He may answer more than what was asked[67]. There are famous speeches recorded in seerat that can be models of eloquence. The last sermon of the prophet is an example of good delivery. The prophet asked for feedback and engaged the audience all the time[68].

4.16 Writing is another effective form of communication. The Qur’an tells us about Sulaiman’s letter to Balqis: inaha min sulaiman wa innha bismi llaahi al rahman al raheem' . A signature is needed on letters[69]. Written documents should be authenticated[70]

4.17 Etiquette of greetings, adab al salaam
The manner of greetings was described in several hadiths of the prophet, kaifa kaana yusaalim al nabi[71] & kaifiyat al salaam[72]. He taught the words of greetings, siyagh al salaam[73]. Greetings can be inquiries such as kaifa asbahta, kaifa amsaita, kaifa haaluk,or dua such as baaraka al llaahu fiika, sabbahaka al llaahu bi khayr, amsaaka al llahu bi al khayr. Dua is preferred to asking, al du’a ahsan min al su aal.  Greetings should precede any conversation, al salaam qabla al kalaam[74]. Greeting may be accompanied by shaking hands, muswahafat[75] or hugging, mu’anaqat[76]. One of the signs of the approach of the Last Day will be greeting a person who does not respond unless they know one another personally[77]. Greetings are not offered for one sleeping or in the bathroom or in the toilet. It is forbidden to greet only one specific person in a group. Salaam is given on rising up to leave a group. Salaam should not be abandoned by dhann that the person greeted will not answer. It is bid’at to use hand signals instead of oral salaam.

Background material by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. for the Communication Module FOM KFMC 6th and 13th October 2009

A communication process starts with conceptualization of the ideas to be communicated. The ideas or message are then encoded, put in a transmissible form. The message is then transmitted and is received. The receiver decodes or interprets the message before understanding it and taking action on it. The process is completed by feedback from the recipient to the sender.

Communication is irreversible; every communication has a lasting impact. Think before you communicate. A negative impact can never be fully wiped out by later retraction or correction. A lingering negativity, however small, always persists.

2.1 The power of words: Words have power and have been likened to magic or sorcery, inna min al bayaan lasihr[78]. However this power of words can be used hypocritically, al bayaan min al nifaaq[79].

2.2 Terminology: The terminology used restricts and determines the limits of the thought process. It is therefore necessary to stick to the terminology of the Qur'an in our communication. New terminologies should be developed and understood in the same context.

2.3 Appropriate language: When communicating make sure you use language appropriate to the communication situation. It is not hypocrisy of pretension to communicate to different people in different ways. It is a great mistake to communicate with everybody in the same way forgetting their special background and peculiarities.

2.4 Precise communication: Communication must be precise to be useful. Precision indicates that the mind is active and is dynamic. Precision indicates that the communicator has a definite communication objective. There is no need to use more words than necessary once the defined objective has been conveyed. Verbosity not only wastes time but creates a mistrust for the speaker in the minds of the listeners.

3.1 BELIEVABLE COMMUNICATION: There are approaches than can enable you have believable communication. Own up your positions by not being afraid to stick out your neck and taking a position. Be emotionally honest such that your outward emotions reflect your inner feelings. This however does not mean that you should display aggression when angry. Islam teaches us to control our aggressive instincts. Be focussed in your communication, an indication that you have an objective. Try not to be selfish in your communication by avoiding making your person and your concern the center of all communication. Give others a chance also. Be evidence-oriented and always concentrate on facts and avoid speculative talk. Be respectful towards others and make sure your level of intimacy is appropriate for the person you are communicating with.

Communication must be pleasant in order to be absorbed and appreciated. Good and positive words are more effective. A good disposition, friendly greetings, smiling, shaking hands, all help the communication process. The voice should be pleasant and convey warmth and friendliness.

A sense of humor helps communication. You must however know where to draw the line. Too much or inappropriate humor indicates lack of seriousness and is negative. Humor usually involves laughing at human follies better yours or anonymous but not the recipient of your communication. Never laugh at anyone however good the justification. A sense of humor can get you out of a difficult situation. It can disarm an angry person. A person who insults or puts you down can be disarmed by an appropriate joke.

Your communication style reflects your basic personality. You may learn a lot about improving your communication style. Never try to develop a phoney personality. Be genuine and be yourself. Communication is the basis of social intercourse and the overall functioning of society. A good word is charity. Say good or keep quiet. Avoid bad words. Use polite words even with people who have done wrong to you. Always have a personal touch.

Content of communication is degraded as it is passed from one person to another because of the increase of the noise component and the decrease of the information content. Noise refers to those factors that distort the intended message.

A receiver of information may benefit more than transmitter: The receiver of a message may understand it at a deeper level and benefit from it than the messenger. Behavior is the result of perception which in turn depends on selection and interpretation of information. The same information can elicit different behaviors in different individuals depending on different perceptions. Background knowledge, attitudes, and environment affect the way the recipient perceives and interprets information.

5.1 The following are common barriers to effective communication: prejudgment before communication, differences between communicators (self-image, status, roles, personality, cognitive ability, physical situation, social status, culture, vocabulary, language), distractions, emotional resistance to being on the receiving end, time constraints, poor listening, poor speech, bad timing, and unsuitable circumstances.

5.2 Other causes of communication failure are: multiple meanings of words, information overlord, verbosity, value judgment, and filtering.

5.3 Prejudgment is one of the most serious causes of failure to communicate. As recipient of communication you must avoid assumptions and pre-judgments. Listen to the data and then judge. Cross-check information to be able to reach right conclusions.

Background material by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. for the Communication Module FOM KFMC 6th and 13th October 2009

Face-to-face communication is usually the best form of communication because of immediate feedback. Important messages should be both oral and written. Writing never conveys fully what is conveyed by direct face-face interaction. In a face to face situation the recipient is able to evaluate the honesty of the speaker by carefully observing behavior. 

Measures can be taken to improve individual communication. These require training and constant practice. Success of oral communication (speaking and listening) is affected by language use, voice and inflexion, speed and volume, periods of silence, active listening, and body language.

For successful communication speak clearly, be specific, objective, repeat to ensure understanding, and ask for feedback. Make sure your have clarity of speech to be understood by trying to speak clearly.

Be concise and specific. Focus on the topic of discussion. Do not say too much and thus create an information overload. Repeat yourself for emphasis as well as clarity and make sure you are understood. Use simple but precise language. Base your communication on objective facts.

Feedback is necessary to ensure that your message is going through. Watch for, ask for, and welcome feed-back. Take the initiative to ask questions to make sure you are understood. Listen more than you talk. Do not talk continuously, pause for questions and comments. Stop talking so that moments of silence may make the message sink in.

Communication with people you know already or those who are close to you is likely to be more successful.

Choose the time of communication carefully. People who are in a hurry or are engaged in another activity will not listen to you with attention.

Your pitch, voice inflections, volume, and speed must be appropriate for the listener, the type of message, and the circumstances. The speed of conversation is important. Too rapid is difficult to follow. Too slow is boring and the listener's mind to wander off.

Learn to use body language to enhance your verbal communication and make sure that the verbal and non-verbal communication cues are coordinated and are not contradictory. Be very careful about non-verbal communication. Your body language and appearance make statements about you. The message conveyed by body language may support or contradict that conveyed verbally. The body language message is more believable.

When arguing your case, start by establishing some common ground on which to build. Use only logical reasoning and avoid being emotional. If you have strong arguments be careful not to prove anyone a fool. That is the quickest way to lose an argument. Do not be defensive. Try to show advantages for others in agreeing with you. Plan: why? what? who to argue with? how?

Choose the time carefully. Discuss with the aim of reaching agreement. Define area of disagreement. Watch for feedback. Do not talk about subjects you do not know[80].

 Concentrate, listen well, give undivided attention, paraphrase what others say to show you respect them, and be polite. Be calm, sympathetic, kind, and lower your voice. Avoid words that hurt. Do not be diverted to branches. Do not prejudge or judge hastily. Do not stereotype. Be brief and concise

Avoid careless talk. It is better to keep quiet than to say something that is wrong, offensive, or misleading. Not every correct things should be said. There are things that can confuse some people in some situations; these are better left unsaid.

2.1 When using the telephone, start with a pleasant but short greeting. Establish rapport immediately. Project a positive and credible image at the beginning; this will facilitate further conversation. Speak with a powerful and confident voice. Sound interested and motivated. Be brief and get to the point immediately. Pause and allow for responses.

2.2 There are words and expressions used in face-to-face communication that will lead to misunderstandings in a telephone conversation because there is no supporting body language.

2.3 Train yourself to signal that you want to end the conversation without offending your listener. You must learn technics appropriate to your culture of cutting off a rambling caller tactfully.

2.4 When an angry, aggressive, and obnoxious person calls you, be careful not to get emotional. Listen him out and ask clarifying questions to understand his motives then act appropriately. It is always better to end such a talk quickly and plan a follow-up at a later time when the caller may be in a better emotional situation.

3.1 Communication in difficult circumstances requires care, special tact, and knowledge. For example interviewing a new employee, informing an employee that he has been dismissed from work, disciplining a poorly-performing employee, termination of an employee, and the exit interview require tact to make sure the message is delivered but that the encounter does not become emotionally charged or even violent.

3.2 It is very important to understand that in circumstances of difficult communication you must separate the person from the problem. You attack the problem and solve it without attacking or in any way diminishing the dignity of the human even if he or she be at fault and common sense tells us that humiliating treatment is deserved

4.1 Listening: Listening activity involves comprehension and 3 transactional processes (direct feed-back, indirect feed-back, and delayed feed-back). Listening can be active or passive. In active listening the listener shows obvious interest and asks questions. An active listener must ask questions to understand. The questions should seek clarifications or additional information. Questions that pre-empt the speaker or that are hypothetical should be avoided. Questions remove ambiguity and create clarity. The speaker can not know whether a passive listener is following or not. Listening can be empathic or critical. Empathic listening could be active or passive. Critical listening involves appreciation and discrimination and is always active.

4.2 Improving listening: Improve your listening skills in face-to-face communication. Analyze your listening behavior, analyze the speaker’s style and analyze the message and see how they relate to your listening behavior. The following behaviors or attributes of the speaker can improve listening: appropriate rate of speaking, fluency, visibility, credibility, likability, and similarity in values with listeners. The message can encourage better listening if it is clear, organized, and is captive. As a listener you can improve your listening in various ways. Talk less and listen more. Clear your mind of other matters before start of the conversation and give undivided attention to the speaker. Let the speaker know you are listening. Write notes. Ask open-ended questions for clarification and also for encouragement of the speaker. Give feed-back. Summarize or paraphrase some of what the speaker says. Be open-minded and not judgmental. While listening avoid the mistake of confusing content with feelings. Separate and deal with each accordingly knowing that each is important. Do not verbally or by use of body language show the speaker that he is ignorant or crazy. Do not be too argumentative even if you do not agree with the speaker. Listen, then think, then respond, and then comprehend.

4.3 Barriers to effective listening: The following are barriers to effective listening: weak extrinsic motivation, personal constraints, environmental constraints, and poor timing of the message. Whenever any of these situations arise, it is better to stop the communication process in a polite non-offensive way and resume at some other time.

5.1 On the first meeting: The first impressions that people get about you on first meeting are lasting. Make sure you project a positive but true image of yourself. Take care of your physical appearance. Your hair must be combed well, the nails clipped, your clothes and face clean and appropriate. Your greetings must exude warmth and confidence. Eye contact with those of the same gender enhances communication. Before starting communication in small groups you can do somethings that facilitate the process: Greetings, shaking hands, standing up as a sign of respect, kissing, and embracing. Take the initiative to greet or shake hands first. Be personal and informal; the personal touch has a lasting impact. Meet others with a cheerful countenance and maintain it throughout the communication process. Express emotions and love for your partners.

5.2 Being in a group: When in a group gathering always talk about Allah. Try to always sit and talk with the pious. Do not exclude the weak and the poor from your gatherings. When sitting in a group, do not ignore anyone. People hate being ignored. Try to involve everybody in the conversation. You cannot engage in secret talks in the presence of others. You should also not use a language unknown by some of the people in the group. Be kind and generous to the young and respectful to the elderly. Never embarrass anyone in a gathering. Always pray for those who say or do something good. Make a dua at the end of the gathering. When sitting in a gathering, give place to the newcomers and let them feel welcome. The newcomer should also avoid displacing anyone. it is better he sits even at the end.

Background material by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. for the Communication Module FOM KFMC 6th and 13th October 2009



Purpose of public speaking: Public speaking serves several purposes that help in leadership situations: informing, entertaining, inspiring, convincing, motivating, teaching, training, and convincing. Speech can be used to define issues and bring about a change

Fear of public speaking: Very few people are gifted speakers. Many people are afraid of public speaking. With good preparation, practice, and building self-confidence, you can overcome your stage fright. Stop being pessimisttic. Do not procrastinate. If you have a speaking engagement prepare early. Train in speech-making. Taking care of your physical appearance builds your self-confidence.

Channels and situations: Channels: Verbal, Visual, & Pictorial. Situations: Physical setting & Social context.

Short and simple speeches: A good speech is usually simple, short, and to the point. The importance of the message conveyed can not be judged by the length of time it took to convey it. Use repetition instead of giving too much information. Do not overlord the audience with information. Concentrate on a few main points but present them well and effectively

Sincerity: Customize the delivery techniques, the intellectual level, or even content of the message. You however can never compromise the truth just to please the audience. You are a leader and the audience are followers. It is a failure of the leadership process if you tell then what pleases their ears instead of talking as a leader and showing them the way ahead. Pleasing audiences is the work of performers and entertainers.

Elements of success in public speaking: Success of public speaking is affected by the speaker, the delivery technic, the message, and the audience.

2.1 The speaker must have integrity, knowledge, positive attitude, sensitivity to the audience and the situation, oral skills, self-confidence and self-control. A successful speaker must have a purpose. A tired exhausted speaker with a well-prepared speech may not do as well as one in good mood. You may be a poor speaker because of lack of commitment to the topic though it may be well prepared.

2.2 As the speaker you must be in control. Acknowledge tension as a normal phenomenon. You should remember that tension reduces as you start speaking. When tense think about things that interest you. You must be yourself and avoid an artificial disposition. Look at the audience. Establish eye contact. Communicate with both body and voice.

2.3 As a speaker you must have interest and commitment to what you are communicating to talk well about it. You must in short be sincere and real. A good message delivered with superb technique but with no sincerity may leave the audience unimpressed. The audience can feel the speaker's sincerity and attune to him. You must be able to establish your credibility for your message to have an impact.

2.4 The physical appearance, posture, gestures, movements and voice quality establish credibility and determine the success of the delivery. They should be appropriate to the audience being addressed and must fulfill the audience’s expectations. As a speaker you must understand that your appearance has a big impact on the audience; they may judge you even before hearing you. Dress appropriately. Maintain proper posture. Use natural gestures, maintain eye contact with the audience and avoid bad mannerisms such as fidgeting, meaningless movements, licking lips, picking your nose etc. Your voice must be confident, mature, and serious. You must appear accessible, be sincere and genuine, and be enthusiastic.

2.5 Speak as long as there is interest. Do not bore the audience. Watch out for signs of audience disinterest such as sleeping, yawning, or walking out. Cut your talk short if the audience is clearly not interested. Learn from the current speech to improve the next one.

3.1 A great speech to one audience may bore another to sleep.  You may have a good topic and deliver it is a masterful fashion to an uninterested audience. A less well-prepared speech delivered in less than perfect style may go well with a positive and expectant audience. The speech must be related to the audience, the speaker, and the topic. The speech must be adapted to the audience as individuals and as a group. Adapting a speech to an audience does not mean pandering to their vanities. The audience benefit depends on: purpose of listening, knowledge of the subject, listening skills, and attitudes.

3.2 As a speaker you must choose your audience carefully. There is no point in speaking to an audience you know is not interested. If you are in the audience you must know that listening is more than hearing. Listen for ideas and not words. Take notes. Suspend judgment. Advance publicity can increase audience interest. The publicity could define who can benefit from the speech so that people who would otherwise be bored do not turn up

4.1 Three parameters concern the message: content, structure, and style. You can learn a lot of technics of speaking effectively, being interesting and captivating the audience. All of these are necessary but can never be a substitute for substance. You must have a useful message to communicate to others. Each speech must have a clear mission. Do not talk for the sake of talking. Talk if you have something to achieve. A captivating title must show benefit to the audience. It must reflect objectives relevant to them. It must deal with real problems and must suggest solutions. It must be action-oriented, easy to remember titles that stimulate the imagination, phrased in a 'catchy' way attract audiences.

4.2 Good preparation is always the key to success. There is no short-cut substitute to knowledge of the subject material to be presented. You must demonstrate that you are the expert. Do not exaggerate. Be honest about limitations in your knowledge. Make sure you tell the audience what are facts, what are opinions, and what are ideas or theories. The message must be innovative and creative.

5.1 Time: Preparing a good speech takes time and effort. Some estimate that one minute of speaking requires one hour of preparation. Familiarity with the subject matter or experience in delivering similar speeches help reduce the time of preparation. Start by planning a time-table and setting specific goals.

The following are steps in speech preparation: selecting and narrowing down the subject, determining the general and specific purposes, determining the central idea, analyzing the audience and the occasion, gathering material for the speech, making an outline, and practicing the speech. Prepare an outline dividing your presentation into three parts: introduction, body and conclusion.

5.2 Topic: Narrowing a topic involves selecting 2-3 points that you can discuss well in the time allocated. You must have the purpose of the speech very clear in your mind. Choose a title for the speech that is relevant to you, the audience and the occasion. The title should be provocative and brief.

When planning a speech start by deciding what you will speak on. Choose what to talk about being guided by subjects you know about, ideas you believe in, or what interests you and the audience. Audience interest is evoked by: concerns over health, security or happiness; solutions to recognized problems; controversy of conflict, a subject appropriate to the occasion.

5.3 Introduction: The introduction is an overview of the speech. It is concise. It raises interest and expectations. You must preview background, special terms, and key points at the start. Plan to capture audience interest at the start or risk losing it forever. Humor is one way of capturing audience interest. Other methods are: starting with questions, telling stories, anecdotes, and personal experiences

5.4 Body: In structuring the body, outline your ideas. The following approaches may be used in outlining: chronology, questions (what?, where?, how?, when?), cause and effect, narration, process, definition, classification, analogies, illustrations, problem-solving scenarios, deductive logic (general to specific), inductive logic (specific to general), time and place characteristics. A thesis must be developed. The thesis statement is the controlling idea, the central theme of the speech. It must be a single declarative sentence. Since it sets the cue for the whole speech, it should be presented early in the speech. Ideas must be organized as main points and linking ideas or transitions from one idea to another must be included for smooth flow of the speech. The language must be clear and appropriate for the topic, situation, and audience.

5.5 Conclusion: The conclusion must summarize the material and end with humility. A good conclusion summarizes the key ideas, gives a sense of completeness, and appeals to the audience.

5.6 Methods of presentation:
Choose a method of presentation (memory, reading manuscript, ex-tempore, impromptu) and rehearse. The most effective delivery would be from memory. There is however a high risk of being confused, forgetting some parts, or saying things you did not plan to say. Use of a manuscript is precise but interferes with active interaction with the audience and could be boring. Extempore delivery uses notes as points to guide the speaker and this is the best. There is no impromptu speech. What goes for impromptu speech has usually been planned and thought about a long time ago and is not spontaneous to the speaker. Impromptu delivery should be avoided except for very experienced speakers who are very knowledgeable about the subject and have delivered a similar speech before.

Background material by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. for the Communication Module FOM KFMC 6th and 13th October 2009

1.1 Positive Image Projection: This section deals with writing letters, internal memos, reports, and papers. Clear writing reflects clear thinking. Written communication projects image about the writer. Written communication leaves a permanent record

1.2 Precise and brief writing: The aim of official writing is to express and not impress. Writing must be brief, precise, direct, forceful, accurate, and result-oriented. Long convoluted sentences should be abandoned; instead short powerful sentences should be used.

1.3 Simple language: Remember that some of your readers may not be subject specialists like you therefore do not use too much technical jargon

1.4 Logic in writing: Logic whether inductive or deductive is used in producing precise effective writing. Writing is helped by thinking logically of blocks of ideas and then translating them into a document.

1.5 Believable: The following are characteristics of believable written communication: the writer owns his positions ie expresses his opinions and stands clearly and does not hide behind vague words and expressions, the writing must be emotionally honest, evidence-oriented, and directed at solving problems.

1.6 Purposive writing: Written communication must be purposive. Avoid no-results writing. Write to inform but not to impress. Each letter must be written with a specific purpose in mind. Letters are written for one of the following purposes: persuade, complain, reject, good will, ask for something, report, or propose.

1.7 Review: Two processes in writing: Creating & Revising

Letters can be classified by their objective: Persuasion, complaint, reference, rejection, good will, application, reporting, and proposals.

The letter must be organized to show the date, name, address, and subject. The subject must be written upfront. A personal or spiritual salutation is necessary. The body should contain the message being communicated. The letter should have a polite and friendly conclusion. A letter should generally be no longer than 2 pages. Details can be attached as addenda instead of being put in the body of the letter. A check-list or readability, correctness of language and format, appropriateness, and thoughts should be used to check the letter before it is sent off. A letter must have a smooth flow of ideas. Reading good model letters helps you develop your style.

Do not send long faxes to people not expecting them. Provide your telephone and fax numbers on the cover sheet. Number pages. Treat incoming faxes as urgent. Do not fax sensitive information.

Ask yourself if the memo is necessary. What are the communication needs of the recipient?: approval - information. Be personal. What do I want to say?. End with good will. Politely mention what actions & responses you expect and when. Arrange ideas logically. Keep opening paragraph short. Vary length of subsequent paragraphs. Be consistent in organizing the memo. Do not communicate negative matters in writing

Quote or paraphrase source material if it is clearly not your thoughts and document carefully. Write a draft first. Divide the paper into introduction, body, and conclusion. The structure of the body: narrative, description, exemplification, process, cause and effect, comparison/contrast, classification/division, definition

Reports and manuals are more difficult to write than ordinary letters. Errors in them are of a worse consequences because many people and operations depend on them. They also require strict documentation: sources, lists, tables, figures, etc. Technical reports should be reader-friendly and avoid cliches and jargon that non-specialist readers do not understand. Reports have their own styles and formats designed with the end-user in mind. A report must have an executive summary. Important points must be emphasized. It must be organized in a logical order.

This is caused by lack of motivation, lack of perseverance, fearing the reader, lack of information, and fear of errors. Writer's block is common and should be dealt with forcefully. It is advisable to develop formats and formulas for writing usually undertaken.
Revision and proofing: All documents must be proof-read. Proofing involves checking for: spelling, punctuation, grammar, style, syntax, data cross check

As a busy executive you can not find the time to write documents. You must rely on assistants to draft them. The assistants must learn your style so that their drafts are like yours.

When writing to difficult persons or about difficult subjects, you must aim at conveying the message without making the situation worse or creating new problems. Try to personalize the communication. Be positive. Avoid use of the first person because it sounds dictatorial. Do not explain negative news because that could lead to misunderstandings and misinterpretations; just deliver the news and no more. Conclude with specific directions on what to do next.

Communication module FOM KFMC on 6th and 13th October 2009 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

A patient with a bandaged left hand walks into the room

Meeting members of the family to tell them that their father has passed away

Prepare a 2-minute oral presentation on stopping smoking

Write 3-5 sentences for a poster against spitting on the road

Prepare a 2-minute presentation against hugging and kissing when greeting

Hemoglobin                                        14.5 g/dL        (13.5 – 18.0)
Total RBC                                           5.6 10E12/L    (4.7 – 6.1)
RDW                                                   12.4%              (11.6 -14.8)
PCV                                                    46.8%              (42.0 – 52.0)
MCV                                                   83.1fl               (80.0 – 100.0)
MCH                                                   25.7 pg            (27.0 – 33.0)
MCHC                                                            31.0 g/dL        (32.0 – 36.0)
Total WBC                                          7.2 10E9/L      (4.0 – 11.0)
            Neutrophils                             49%                 (40 – 75)
            Lymphocytes                          35%                 (20 - 45)
            Monocytes                              10%                 (2 – 10)
            Basinophils                              5%                   (1 – 6)
            Basophils                                 1%                   (0 – 1)
ESR                                                     9 m/hr              (2 – 10)           

Sodium                                                144 mmol/L     (136 – 145)
Potassium                                            4.0 mmol/L      (3.5 – 5.1)
Chloride                                              104 mmol/L     (97 – 107)
Urea                                                    5.7 mmol/L      (2.5 – 6.4)
Serum creatinine                                 115 umol/L      (71-115)
Calcium                                               2.28 mmol/L    (2.12 – 2.52)
Corrected calcium                               2.26 mmol/L
Phosphate                                            0.93 mmol/L    (0.80 – 1.60)
Uric acid                                             423 umol/L      (208 – 428)

Glucose                                               5.1 mmol/L      (4.0 – 7.8)
Total cholesterol                                  5.6 mmol/L      (<5.2 desirable)
                                                                                    (5.2 – 6.2 borderline)
                                                                                    (>6.2 high risk)
HDL Cholesterol                                1.25 mmol/L    >1.03 normal
LDL Cholesterol                                 3.73 mmol/L    <2.58 normal
                                                                                    4.12 – 4.89 high                                                                                                                      >4.9 very high
Triglycerides                                       1.37 mmol/L    <1.70 normal
Cholesterol / HDL ratio                      4.48                 <5.9

Total protein                                        74 g/L              (64-82)
Albumin                                              41 g/L              (34-50)
Globulin                                              33 g/L              (20-39)
A/G Ratio                                           1.2                  
Total bilirubin                                      7.0 umol/L       (<17.1)
Alkaline phosphatase                          96 IU/L           (50-136)
SGPT/ALT                                          35 IU/L           (30-55)
SGOT/AST                                         20 IU/L           (15-37)
Gamma-GT                                         75 IU/L           (15-85)                                               

10.0 EXPLAINING A LAB REPORT (Urine microbiology) TO A PATIENT
Urine appearance                                Clear
Urine SG                                             1.015               (1.005 – 1.030)
Urine pH                                             6.0                   (4.5 – 8.0)
Nitrate                                                 Negative
Protein                                                 Negative
Glucose                                               Negative
Ketone                                                            Negative
Urobilinogen                                       Normal
Bilirubin                                              Negative
RBC/HB/Myoglobin                           Negative

RBC                                                    Nil /uL (0-3)
WBC                                                   Nil /uL (0-6)
Epithelial cells                                     Nil /uL
Crystal                                                 Nil
Cast                                                     Nil
Bacteria                                               Occasional    


[1] Qur'an
[2] Qur'an
[3] Bukhari
[4] Qur’an
[5] Muslim
[6] Qur'an
[7] Qur’an
[8] Qur’an
[9] Bukhari
[10] Qur’an
[11] Bukhari
[12] Bukhari
[13] Bukhari
[14] Qur’an
[15] Qur'an
[16] Qur'an
[17] Qur'an
[18]  Bukhari
[19] Bukhari
[20] Bukhari
[21] Muslim
[22] Bukhari
[23] Qur'an
[24] Muwatta
[25] Muwatta
[26] Bukhari
[27] Bukhari
[28] Bukhari
[29] Qur’an
[30] Qur’an
[31] Qur’an
[32] Tirmidhi
[33] Ahmad
[34] Qur’an
[35] Qur’an
[36] Qur’an)
[37] Bukhari
[38] Tirmidhi
[39] Bukhari
[40] Abu Daud
[41]  Muslim
[42] Abu Daud
[43] Qur'an
[44] Bukhari
[45] Abu Daud
[46] Muslim
[47] Bukhari
[48] Bukhari
[49] Bukhari
[50] Bakhari
[51] Bukhari
[52] Abu Daud
[53] Abu Daud
[54] Muslim
[55] Bukhari
[56] Bukhari
[57] Bukhari
[58]  KS452)
[59] Muslim
[60]  Muslim
[61] Abu Daud
[62] Abu Daud
[63]  Muslim
[64] Bukhari
[65] Bukhari
[66] Abu Daud
[67] Bukhari
[68] Heykal. Life of Muhammad pp 485-487
[69] Bukhari
[70] Bukhari
[71] Bukhari
[72] Tirmidhi
[73] Abudaud
[74] Tirmidhi
[75] Bukhari
[76] Bukhari
[77] Ahmad
[78] Bukhari
[79] Ahmad
[80] Qur’an


Writings of Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr

This section provides thoughts in Islamic Epistemology and Curriculum Reform.
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